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China: Congressional-Executive Commission
These provisions of law are from Public Law 106-286 of 2000, some sections of which have been subsequently amended. The text shown here is as codified in Chapter 77 of Title 22 of the U.S. Code.

 

 

Other provisions of U.S. law concerning trade with China are: 

 

See also a currency manipulation law that was not originally enacted with China in mind but has become a focus of attention in the relationship.

 

 

 


CHAPTER 77—UNITED STATES-CHINA RELATIONS
SUBCHAPTER II—CONGRESSIONAL-EXECUTIVE COMMISSION ON THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

§6911. Establishment of Congressional-Executive Commission on the People's Republic of China

There is established a Congressional-Executive Commission on the People's Republic of China (in this subchapter referred to as the “Commission”).

 

§6912. Functions of the Commission

(a) Monitoring compliance with human rights

The Commission shall monitor the acts of the People's Republic of China which reflect compliance with or violation of human rights, in particular, those contained in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including, but not limited to, effectively affording—

(1) the right to engage in free expression without fear of any prior restraints;

(2) the right to peaceful assembly without restrictions, in accordance with international law;

(3) religious freedom, including the right to worship free of involvement of and interference by the government;

(4) the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose a residence within the People's Republic of China and the right to leave from and return to the People's Republic of China;

(5) the right of a criminal defendant—

(A) to be tried in his or her presence, and to defend himself or herself in person or through legal assistance of his or her own choosing;

(B) to be informed, if he or she does not have legal assistance, of the right set forth in subparagraph (A);

(C) to have legal assistance assigned to him or her in any case in which the interests of justice so require and without payment by him or her in any such case if he or she does not have sufficient means to pay for it;

(D) to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent, and impartial tribunal established by the law;

(E) to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law; and

(F) to be tried without undue delay;

(6) the right to be free from torture and other forms of cruel or unusual punishment;

(7) protection of internationally recognized worker rights;

(8) freedom from incarceration as punishment for political opposition to the government;

(9) freedom from incarceration as punishment for exercising or advocating human rights (including those described in this section);

(10) freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention, or exile;

(11) the right to fair and public hearings by an independent tribunal for the determination of a citizen's rights and obligations; and

(12) free choice of employment.

(b) Victims lists

The Commission shall compile and maintain lists of persons believed to be imprisoned, detained, or placed under house arrest, tortured, or otherwise persecuted by the Government of the People's Republic of China due to their pursuit of the rights described in subsection (a) of this section. In compiling such lists, the Commission shall exercise appropriate discretion, including concerns regarding the safety and security of, and benefit to, the persons who may be included on the lists and their families.

(c) Monitoring development of rule of law

The Commission shall monitor the development of the rule of law in the People's Republic of China, including, but not limited to—

(1) progress toward the development of institutions of democratic governance;

(2) processes by which statutes, regulations, rules, and other legal acts of the Government of the People's Republic of China are developed and become binding within the People's Republic of China;

(3) the extent to which statutes, regulations, rules, administrative and judicial decisions, and other legal acts of the Government of the People's Republic of China are published and are made accessible to the public;

(4) the extent to which administrative and judicial decisions are supported by statements of reasons that are based upon written statutes, regulations, rules, and other legal acts of the Government of the People's Republic of China;

(5) the extent to which individuals are treated equally under the laws of the of the 1 People's Republic of China without regard to citizenship;

(6) the extent to which administrative and judicial decisions are independent of political pressure or governmental interference and are reviewed by entities of appellate jurisdiction; and

(7) the extent to which laws in the People's Republic of China are written and administered in ways that are consistent with international human rights standards, including the requirements of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

(d) Bilateral cooperation

The Commission shall monitor and encourage the development of programs and activities of the United States Government and private organizations with a view toward increasing the interchange of people and ideas between the United States and the People's Republic of China and expanding cooperation in areas that include, but are not limited to—

(1) increasing enforcement of human rights described in subsection (a) of this section; and

(2) developing the rule of law in the People's Republic of China.

(e) Contacts with nongovernmental organizations

In performing the functions described in subsections (a) through (d) of this section, the Commission shall, as appropriate, seek out and maintain contacts with nongovernmental organizations, including receiving reports and updates from such organizations and evaluating such reports.

(f) Cooperation with Special Coordinator

In performing the functions described in subsections (a) through (d) of this section, the Commission shall cooperate with the Special Coordinator for Tibetan Issues in the Department of State.

(g) Annual reports

The Commission shall issue a report to the President and the Congress not later than 12 months after October 10, 2000, and not later than the end of each 12-month period thereafter, setting forth the findings of the Commission during the preceding 12-month period, in carrying out subsections (a) through (c) of this section. The Commission's report may contain recommendations for legislative or executive action.

(h) Specific information in annual reports

The Commission's report under subsection (g) of this section shall include—

(1) specific information as to the nature and implementation of laws or policies concerning the rights set forth in paragraphs (1) through (12) of subsection (a) of this section, and as to restrictions applied to or discrimination against persons exercising any of the rights set forth in such paragraphs; and

(2) a description of the status of negotiations between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Dalai Lama or his representatives, and measures taken to safeguard Tibet's distinct historical, religious, cultural, and linguistic identity and the protection of human rights.

(i) Congressional hearings on annual reports

(1) The Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives shall, not later than 30 days after the receipt by the Congress of the report referred to in subsection (g) of this section, hold hearings on the contents of the report, including any recommendations contained therein, for the purpose of receiving testimony from Members of Congress, and such appropriate representatives of Federal departments and agencies, and interested persons and groups, as the committee deems advisable, with a view to reporting to the House of Representatives any appropriate legislation in furtherance of such recommendations. If any such legislation is considered by the Committee on International Relations within 45 days after receipt by the Congress of the report referred to in subsection (g) of this section, it shall be reported by the committee not later than 60 days after receipt by the Congress of such report.

(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) are enacted by the Congress—

(A) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the House of Representatives, and as such are deemed a part of the rules of the House, and they supersede other rules only to the extent that they are inconsistent therewith; and

(B) with full recognition of the constitutional right of the House to change the rules (so far as relating to the procedure of the House) at any time, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of the House.

(j) Supplemental reports

The Commission may submit to the President and the Congress reports that supplement the reports described in subsection (g) of this section, as appropriate, in carrying out subsections (a) through (c) of this section.

 

§6913. Membership of the Commission

(a) Selection and appointment of members

The Commission shall be composed of 23 members as follows:

(1) Nine Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Five members shall be selected from the majority party and four members shall be selected, after consultation with the minority leader of the House, from the minority party.

(2) Nine Members of the Senate appointed by the President of the Senate. Five members shall be selected, after consultation with the majority leader of the Senate, from the majority party, and four members shall be selected, after consultation with the minority leader of the Senate, from the minority party.

(3) One representative of the Department of State, appointed by the President of the United States from among officers and employees of that Department.

(4) One representative of the Department of Commerce, appointed by the President of the United States from among officers and employees of that Department.

(5) One representative of the Department of Labor, appointed by the President of the United States from among officers and employees of that Department.

(6) Two at-large representatives, appointed by the President of the United States, from among the officers and employees of the executive branch.

(b) Chairman and Cochairman

(1) Designation of Chairman

At the beginning of each odd-numbered Congress, the President of the Senate, on the recommendation of the majority leader, shall designate one of the members of the Commission from the Senate as Chairman of the Commission. At the beginning of each even-numbered Congress, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall designate one of the members of the Commission from the House as Chairman of the Commission.

(2) Designation of Cochairman

At the beginning of each odd-numbered Congress, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall designate one of the members of the Commission from the House as Cochairman of the Commission. At the beginning of each even-numbered Congress, the President of the Senate, on the recommendation of the majority leader, shall designate one of the members of the Commission from the Senate as Cochairman of the Commission.

 

§6914. Votes of the Commission

Decisions of the Commission, including adoption of reports and recommendations to the executive branch or to the Congress, shall be made by a majority vote of the members of the Commission present and voting. Two-thirds of the Members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for purposes of conducting business.

 

§6915. Expenditure of appropriations

For each fiscal year for which an appropriation is made to the Commission, the Commission shall issue a report to the Congress on its expenditures under that appropriation.

 

§6916. Testimony of witnesses, production of evidence; issuance of subpoenas; administration of oaths

In carrying out this subchapter, the Commission may require, by subpoena or otherwise, the attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such books, records, correspondence, memoranda, papers, documents, and electronically recorded data as it considers necessary. Subpoenas may be issued only pursuant to a two-thirds vote of members of the Commission present and voting. Subpoenas may be issued over the signature of the Chairman of the Commission or any member designated by the Chairman, and may be served by any person designated by the Chairman or such member. The Chairman of the Commission, or any member designated by the Chairman, may administer oaths to any witness.

 

§6917. Appropriations for the Commission

(a) Authorization; disbursements

(1) Authorization

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commission for fiscal year 2001, and each fiscal year thereafter, such sums as may be necessary to enable it to carry out its functions. Appropriations to the Commission are authorized to remain available until expended.

(2) Disbursements

Appropriations to the Commission shall be disbursed on vouchers approved—

(A) jointly by the Chairman and the Cochairman; or

(B) by a majority of the members of the personnel and administration committee established pursuant to section 6918 of this title.

(b) Foreign travel for official purposes

Foreign travel for official purposes by members and staff of the Commission may be authorized by either the Chairman or the Cochairman.

 

§6918. Staff of the Commission

(a) Personnel and administration committee

The Commission shall have a personnel and administration committee composed of the Chairman, the Cochairman, the senior member of the Commission from the minority party of the House of Representatives, and the senior member of the Commission from the minority party of the Senate.

(b) Committee functions

All decisions pertaining to the hiring, firing, and fixing of pay of personnel of the Commission shall be by a majority vote of the personnel and administration committee, except that—

(1) the Chairman shall be entitled to appoint and fix the pay of the staff director, and the Cochairman shall be entitled to appoint and fix the pay of the Cochairman's senior staff member; and

(2) the Chairman and Cochairman shall each have the authority to appoint, with the approval of the personnel and administration committee, at least four professional staff members who shall be responsible to the Chairman or the Cochairman (as the case may be) who appointed them.

Subject to subsection (d) of this section, the personnel and administration committee may appoint and fix the pay of such other personnel as it considers desirable.

(c) Staff appointments

All staff appointments shall be made without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and general schedule pay rates.

(d) Qualifications of professional staff

The personnel and administration committee shall ensure that the professional staff of the Commission consists of persons with expertise in areas including human rights, internationally recognized worker rights, international economics, law (including international law), rule of law and other foreign assistance programming, Chinese politics, economy and culture, and the Chinese language.

(e) Commission employees as congressional employees

(1) In general

For purposes of pay and other employment benefits, rights, and privileges, and for all other purposes, any employee of the Commission shall be considered to be a congressional employee as defined in section 2107 of title 5.

(2) Competitive status

For purposes of section 3304(c)(1) of title 5, employees of the Commission shall be considered as if they are in positions in which they are paid by the Secretary of the Senate or the Clerk of the House of Representatives.

 

§6919. Printing and binding costs

For purposes of costs relating to printing and binding, including the costs of personnel detailed from the Government Printing Office, the Commission shall be deemed to be a committee of the Congress.