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Clean Diamond Trade
This was enacted as Public Law 108-19 in 2003. The text shown here is as codified in Chapter 25 of Title 19 of the U.S. Code.

 

 

 

See also the conflict minerals law and the CENTRAL guide to Security, Sanctions, and Compliance.

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER 25—CLEAN DIAMOND TRADE

§3901. Findings

Congress finds the following:

(1) Funds derived from the sale of rough diamonds are being used by rebels and state actors to finance military activities, overthrow legitimate governments, subvert international efforts to promote peace and stability, and commit horrifying atrocities against unarmed civilians. During the past decade, more than 6,500,000 people from Sierra Leone, Angola, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been driven from their homes by wars waged in large part for control of diamond mining areas. A million of these are refugees eking out a miserable existence in neighboring countries, and tens of thousands have fled to the United States. Approximately 3,700,000 people have died during these wars.

(2) The countries caught in this fighting are home to nearly 70,000,000 people whose societies have been torn apart not only by fighting but also by terrible human rights violations.

(3) Human rights and humanitarian advocates, the diamond trade as represented by the World Diamond Council, and the United States Government have been working to block the trade in conflict diamonds. Their efforts have helped to build a consensus that action is urgently needed to end the trade in conflict diamonds.

(4) The United Nations Security Council has acted at various times under chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations to address threats to international peace and security posed by conflicts linked to diamonds. Through these actions, it has prohibited all states from exporting weapons to certain countries affected by such conflicts. It has further required all states to prohibit the direct and indirect import of rough diamonds from Sierra Leone unless the diamonds are controlled under specified certificate of origin regimes and to prohibit absolutely the direct and indirect import of rough diamonds from Liberia.

(5) In response, the United States implemented sanctions restricting the importation of rough diamonds from Sierra Leone to those diamonds accompanied by specified certificates of origin and fully prohibiting the importation of rough diamonds from Liberia. The United States is now taking further action against trade in conflict diamonds.

(6) Without effective action to eliminate trade in conflict diamonds, the trade in legitimate diamonds faces the threat of a consumer backlash that could damage the economies of countries not involved in the trade in conflict diamonds and penalize members of the legitimate trade and the people they employ. To prevent that, South Africa and more than 30 other countries are involved in working, through the “Kimberley Process”, toward devising a solution to this problem. As the consumer of a majority of the world's supply of diamonds, the United States has an obligation to help sever the link between diamonds and conflict and press for implementation of an effective solution.

(7) Failure to curtail the trade in conflict diamonds or to differentiate between the trade in conflict diamonds and the trade in legitimate diamonds could have a severe negative impact on the legitimate diamond trade in countries such as Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania.

(8) Initiatives of the United States seek to resolve the regional conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa which facilitate the trade in conflict diamonds.

(9) The Interlaken Declaration on the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme for Rough Diamonds of November 5, 2002, states that Participants will ensure that measures taken to implement the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme for Rough Diamonds will be consistent with international trade rules.

§3902. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) Appropriate congressional committees

The term “appropriate congressional committees” means the Committee on Ways and Means and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Finance and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.

(2) Controlled through the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme

An importation or exportation of rough diamonds is “controlled through the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme” if it is an importation from the territory of a Participant or exportation to the territory of a Participant of rough diamonds that is—

(A) carried out in accordance with the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, as set forth in regulations promulgated by the President; or

(B) controlled under a system determined by the President to meet substantially the standards, practices, and procedures of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.

(3) Exporting authority

The term “exporting authority” means 1 or more entities designated by a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having the authority to validate the Kimberley Process Certificate.

(4) Importing authority

The term “importing authority” means 1 or more entities designated by a Participant into whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is imported as having the authority to enforce the laws and regulations of the Participant regulating imports, including the verification of the Kimberley Process Certificate accompanying the shipment.

(5) Kimberley Process Certificate

The term “Kimberley Process Certificate” means a forgery resistant document of a Participant that demonstrates that an importation or exportation of rough diamonds has been controlled through the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme and contains the minimum elements set forth in Annex I to the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.

(6) Kimberley Process Certification Scheme

The term “Kimberley Process Certification Scheme” means those standards, practices, and procedures of the international certification scheme for rough diamonds presented in the document entitled “Kimberley Process Certification Scheme” referred to in the Interlaken Declaration on the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme for Rough Diamonds of November 5, 2002.

(7) Participant

The term “Participant” means a state, customs territory, or regional economic integration organization identified by the Secretary of State.

(8) Person

The term “person” means an individual or entity.

(9) Rough diamond

The term “rough diamond” means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn, cleaved, or bruted and classifiable under subheading 7102.10, 7102.21, or 7102.31 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

(10) United States

The term “United States”, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.

(11) United States person

The term “United States person” means—

(A) any United States citizen or any alien admitted for permanent residence into the United States;

(B) any entity organized under the laws of the United States or any jurisdiction within the United States (including its foreign branches); and

(C) any person in the United States.

 

§3903. Measures for the importation and exportation of rough diamonds

(a) Prohibition

The President shall prohibit the importation into, or exportation from, the United States of any rough diamond, from whatever source, that has not been controlled through the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.

(b) Waiver

The President may waive the requirements set forth in subsection (a) with respect to a particular country for periods of not more than 1 year each, if, with respect to each such waiver—

(1) the President determines and reports to the appropriate congressional committees that such country is taking effective steps to implement the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme; or

(2) the President determines that the waiver is in the national interests of the United States, and reports such determination to the appropriate congressional committees, together with the reasons therefor.

 

§3904. Regulatory and other authority

(a) In general

The President is authorized to and shall as necessary issue such proclamations, regulations, licenses, and orders, and conduct such investigations, as may be necessary to carry out this chapter.

(b) Recordkeeping

Any United States person seeking to export from or import into the United States any rough diamonds shall keep a full record of, in the form of reports or otherwise, complete information relating to any act or transaction to which any prohibition imposed under section 3903(a) of this title applies. The President may require such person to furnish such information under oath, including the production of books of account, records, contracts, letters, memoranda, or other papers, in the custody or control of such person.

(c) Oversight

The President shall require the appropriate Government agency to conduct annual reviews of the standards, practices, and procedures of any entity in the United States that issues Kimberley Process Certificates for the exportation from the United States of rough diamonds to determine whether such standards, practices, and procedures are in accordance with the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme. The President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on each annual review under this subsection.

 

§3905. Importing and exporting authorities

(a) In the United States

For purposes of this chapter—

(1) the importing authority shall be the United States Bureau of Customs and Border Protection or, in the case of a territory or possession of the United States with its own customs administration, analogous officials; and

(2) the exporting authority shall be the Bureau of the Census.

(b) Of other countries

The President shall publish in the Federal Register a list of all Participants, and all exporting authorities and importing authorities of Participants. The President shall update the list as necessary.

 

§3906. Statement of policy

The Congress supports the policy that the President shall take appropriate steps to promote and facilitate the adoption by the international community of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme implemented under this chapter.

 

§3907. Enforcement

(a) In general

In addition to the enforcement provisions set forth in subsection (b)—

(1) a civil penalty of not to exceed $10,000 may be imposed on any person who violates, or attempts to violate, any license, order, or regulation issued under this chapter; and

(2) whoever willfully violates, or willfully attempts to violate, any license, order, or regulation issued under this chapter shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $50,000, or, if a natural person, may be imprisoned for not more than 10 years, or both; and any officer, director, or agent of any corporation who willfully participates in such violation may be punished by a like fine, imprisonment, or both.

(b) Import violations

Those customs laws of the United States, both civil and criminal, including those laws relating to seizure and forfeiture, that apply to articles imported in violation of such laws shall apply with respect to rough diamonds imported in violation of this chapter.

(c) Authority to enforce

The United States Bureau of Customs and Border Protection and the United States Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement are authorized, as appropriate, to enforce the provisions of subsection (a) and to enforce the laws and regulations governing exports of rough diamonds, including with respect to the validation of the Kimberley Process Certificate by the exporting authority.

 

§3908. Technical assistance

The President may direct the appropriate agencies of the United States Government to make available technical assistance to countries seeking to implement the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.

 

§3909. Sense of Congress

(a) Ongoing process

It is the sense of the Congress that the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, officially launched on January 1, 2003, is an ongoing process. The President should work with Participants to strengthen the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme through the adoption of measures for the sharing of statistics on the production of and trade in rough diamonds, and for monitoring the effectiveness of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme in stemming trade in diamonds the importation or exportation of which is not controlled through the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.

(b) Statistics and reporting

It is the sense of the Congress that under Annex III to the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, Participants recognized that reliable and comparable data on the international trade in rough diamonds are an essential tool for the effective implementation of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme. Therefore, the executive branch should continue to—

(1) keep and publish statistics on imports and exports of rough diamonds under subheadings 7102.10.00, 7102.21, and 7102.31.00 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States;

(2) make these statistics available for analysis by interested parties and by Participants; and

(3) take a leadership role in negotiating a standardized methodology among Participants for reporting statistics on imports and exports of rough diamonds.

 

§3910. Kimberley Process Implementation Coordinating Committee

The President shall establish a Kimberley Process Implementation Coordinating Committee to coordinate the implementation of this chapter. The Committee shall be composed of the following individuals or their designees:

(1) The Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of State, who shall be co-chairpersons.

(2) The Secretary of Commerce.

(3) The United States Trade Representative.

(4) The Secretary of Homeland Security.

(5) A representative of any other agency the President deems appropriate.

 

§3911. Reports

(a) Annual reports

Not later than 1 year after April 25, 2003, and every 12 months thereafter for such period as this chapter is in effect, the President shall transmit to the Congress a report—

(1) describing actions taken by countries that have exported rough diamonds to the United States during the preceding 12-month period to control the exportation of the diamonds through the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme;

(2) describing whether there is statistical information or other evidence that would indicate efforts to circumvent the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, including cutting rough diamonds for the purpose of circumventing the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme;

(3) identifying each country that, during the preceding 12-month period, exported rough diamonds to the United States and was exporting rough diamonds not controlled through the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, if the failure to do so has significantly increased the likelihood that those diamonds not so controlled are being imported into the United States; and

(4) identifying any problems or obstacles encountered in the implementation of this chapter or the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme.

(b) Semiannual reports

For each country identified in subsection (a)(3), the President, during such period as this chapter is in effect, shall, every 6 months after the initial report in which the country was identified, transmit to the Congress a report that explains what actions have been taken by the United States or such country since the previous report to ensure that diamonds the exportation of which was not controlled through the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme are not being imported from that country into the United States. The requirement to issue a semiannual report with respect to a country under this subsection shall remain in effect until such time as the country is controlling the importation and exportation of rough diamonds through the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.

 

§3912. GAO report

Not later than 24 months after the effective date of this chapter, the Comptroller General of the United States shall transmit a report to the Congress on the effectiveness of the provisions of this chapter in preventing the importation or exportation of rough diamonds that is prohibited under section 3903 of this title. The Comptroller General shall include in the report any recommendations on any modifications to this chapter that may be necessary.

 

§3913. Delegation of authorities

The President may delegate the duties and authorities under this chapter to such officers, officials, departments, or agencies of the United States Government as the President deems appropriate.