§2406. Short supply controls
(1) In order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix], the President may prohibit or curtail the export of any goods subject to the jurisdiction of the United States or exported by any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. In curtailing exports to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix], the President shall allocate a portion of export licenses on the basis of factors other than a prior history of exportation. Such factors shall include the extent to which a country engages in equitable trade practices with respect to United States goods and treats the United States equitably in times of short supply.
(2) Upon imposing quantitative restrictions on exports of any goods to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix], the Secretary shall include in a notice published in the Federal Register with respect to such restrictions an invitation to all interested parties to submit written comments within 15 days from the date of publication on the impact of such restrictions and the method of licensing used to implement them.
(3) In imposing export controls under this section, the President’s authority shall include, but not be limited to, the imposition of export license fees.
(1) In order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix], the Secretary shall monitor exports, and contracts for exports, of any good (other than a commodity which is subject to the reporting requirements of section 812 of the Agricultural Act of 1970 [7 U.S.C. 612c–3]) when the volume of such exports in relation to domestic supply contributes, or may contribute, to an increase in domestic prices or a domestic shortage, and such price increase or shortage has, or may have, a serious adverse impact on the economy or any sector thereof. Any such monitoring shall commence at a time adequate to assure that the monitoring will result in a data base sufficient to enable policies to be developed, in accordance with section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix], to mitigate a short supply situation or serious inflationary price rise or, if export controls are needed, to permit imposition of such controls in a timely manner. Information which the Secretary requires to be furnished in effecting such monitoring shall be confidential, except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection.
(2) The results of such monitoring shall, to the extent practicable, be aggregated and included in weekly reports setting forth, with respect to each item monitored, actual and anticipated exports, the destination by country, and the domestic and worldwide price, supply, and demand. Such reports may be made monthly if the Secretary determines that there is insufficient information to justify weekly reports.
(3) The Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of Energy to determine whether monitoring or export controls under this section are warranted with respect to exports of facilities, machinery, or equipment normally and principally used, or intended to be used, in the production, conversion, or transportation of fuels and energy (except nuclear energy), including, but not limited to, drilling rigs, platforms, and equipment; petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, liquefaction, and gasification plants; facilities for production of synthetic natural gas or synthetic crude oil; oil and gas pipelines, pumping stations, and associated equipment; and vessels for transporting oil, gas, coal, and other fuels.
(c) Petitions for monitoring or controls
(1)(A) Any entity, including a trade association, firm, or certified or recognized union or group of workers, that is representative of an industry or a substantial segment of an industry that processes metallic materials capable of being recycled may transmit a written petition to the Secretary requesting the monitoring of exports or the imposition of export controls, or both, with respect to any such material, in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix].
(B) Each petition shall be in such form as the Secretary shall prescribe and shall contain information in support of the action requested. The petition shall include any information reasonably available to the petitioner indicating that each of the criteria set forth in paragraph (3)(A) of this subsection is satisfied.
(2) Within 15 days after receipt of any petition described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register. The notice shall—
(A) include the name of the material that is the subject of the petition,
(B) include the Schedule B number of the material as set forth in the Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States,
(C) indicate whether the petitioner is requesting that controls or monitoring, or both, be imposed with respect to the exportation of such material, and
(D) provide that interested persons shall have a period of 30 days beginning on the date of publication of such notice to submit to the Secretary written data, views or arguments, with or without opportunity for oral presentation, with respect to the matter involved.
At the request of the petitioner or any other entity described in paragraph (1)(A) with respect to the material that is the subject of the petition, or at the request of any entity representative of producers or exporters of such material, the Secretary shall conduct public hearings with respect to the subject of the petition, in which case the 30-day period may be extended to 45 days.
(3)(A) Within 45 days after the end of the 30- or 45-day period described in paragraph (2), as the case may be, the Secretary shall determine whether to impose monitoring or controls, or both, on the export of the material that is the subject of the petition, in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix]. In making such determination, the Secretary shall determine whether—
(i) there has been a significant increase, in relation to a specific period of time, in exports of such material in relation to domestic supply and demand;
(ii) there has been a significant increase in the domestic price of such material or a domestic shortage of such material relative to demand;
(iii) exports of such material are as important as any other cause of a domestic price increase or shortage relative to demand found under clause (ii);
(iv) a domestic price increase or shortage relative to demand found under clause (ii) has significantly adversely affected or may significantly adversely affect the national economy or any sector thereof, including a domestic industry; and
(v) monitoring or controls, or both, are necessary in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix].
(B) The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a detailed statement of the reasons for the Secretary’s determination pursuant to subparagraph (A) of whether to impose monitoring or controls, or both, including the findings of fact in support of that determination.
(4) Within 15 days after making a determination under paragraph (3) to impose monitoring or controls on the export of a material, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register proposed regulations with respect to such monitoring or controls. Within 30 days after the publication of such proposed regulations, and after considering any public comments on the proposed regulations, the Secretary shall publish and implement final regulations with respect to such monitoring or controls.
(5) For purposes of publishing notices in the Federal Register and scheduling public hearings pursuant to this subsection, the Secretary may consolidate petitions, and responses to such petitions, which involve the same or related materials.
(6) If a petition with respect to a particular material or group of materials has been considered in accordance with all the procedures prescribed in this subsection, the Secretary may determine, in the absence of significantly changed circumstances, that any other petition with respect to the same material or group of materials which is filed within 6 months after the consideration of the prior petition has been completed does not merit complete consideration under this subsection.
(7) The procedures and time limits set forth in this subsection with respect to a petition filed under this subsection shall take precedence over any review undertaken at the initiative of the Secretary with respect to the same subject as that of the petition.
(8) The Secretary may impose monitoring or controls, on a temporary basis, on the export of a metallic material after a petition is filed under paragraph (1)(A) with respect to that material but before the Secretary makes a determination under paragraph (3) with respect to that material only if—
(A) the failure to take such temporary action would result in irreparable harm to the entity filing the petition, or to the national economy or segment thereof, including a domestic industry, and
(B) the Secretary considers such action to be necessary to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix].
(9) The authority under this subsection shall not be construed to affect the authority of the Secretary under any other provision of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], except that if the Secretary determines, on the Secretary’s own initiative, to impose monitoring or controls, or both, on the export of metallic materials capable of being recycled, under the authority of this section, the Secretary shall publish the reasons for such action in accordance with paragraph (3)(A) and (B) of this subsection.
(10) Nothing contained in this subsection shall be construed to preclude submission on a confidential basis to the Secretary of information relevant to a decision to impose or remove monitoring or controls under the authority of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], or to preclude consideration of such information by the Secretary in reaching decisions required under this subsection. The provisions of this paragraph shall not be construed to affect the applicability of section 552(b) of title 5, United States Code.
(d) Domestically produced crude oil
(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] and notwithstanding subsection (u) of section 28 of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 (30 U.S.C. 185), no domestically produced crude oil transported by pipeline over right-of-way granted pursuant to section 203 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (43 U.S.C. 1652) (except any such crude oil which (A) is exported to an adjacent foreign country to be refined and consumed therein in exchange for the same quantity of crude oil being exported from that country to the United States; such exchange must result through convenience or increased efficiency of transportation in lower prices for consumers of petroleum products in the United States as described in paragraph (2)(A)(ii) of this subsection, (B) is temporarily exported for convenience or increased efficiency of transportation across parts of an adjacent foreign country and reenters the United States, or (C) is transported to Canada, to be consumed therein, in amounts not to exceed an annual average of 50,000 barrels per day, in addition to exports under subparagraphs (A) and (B), except that any ocean transportation of such oil shall be by vessels documented under section 12106 of title 46, United States Code) may be exported from the United States, or any of its territories and possessions, subject to paragraph (2) of this subsection.
(2) Crude oil subject to the prohibition contained in paragraph (1) may be exported only if—
(A) the President so recommends to the Congress after making and publishing express findings that exports of such crude oil, including exchanges—
(i) will not diminish the total quantity or quality of petroleum refined within, stored within, or legally committed to be transported to and sold within the United States;
(ii) will, within 3 months following the initiation of such exports or exchanges, result in (I) acquisition costs to the refiners which purchase the imported crude oil being lower than the acquisition costs such refiners would have to pay for the domestically produced oil in the absence of such an export or exchange, and (II) not less than 75 percent of such savings in costs being reflected in wholesale and retail prices of products refined from such imported crude oil;
(iii) will be made only pursuant to contracts which may be terminated if the crude oil supplies of the United States are interrupted, threatened, or diminished;
(iv) are clearly necessary to protect the national interest; and
(v) are in accordance with the provisions of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]; and
(B) the President includes such findings in his recommendation to the Congress and the Congress, within 60 days after receiving that recommendation, agrees to a joint resolution which approves such exports on the basis of those findings, and which is thereafter enacted into law.
(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or any other provision of law, including subsection (u) of section 28 of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 [30 U.S.C. 185(u)], the President may export oil to any country pursuant to a bilateral international oil supply agreement entered into by the United States with such nation before June 25, 1979, or to any country pursuant to the International Emergency Oil Sharing Plan of the International Energy Agency.
(e) Refined petroleum products
(1) In any case in which the President determines that it is necessary to impose export controls on refined petroleum products in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix], the President shall notify the Congress of that determination. The President shall also notify the Congress if and when he determines that such export controls are no longer necessary. During any period in which a determination that such export controls are necessary is in effect, no refined petroleum product may be exported except pursuant to an export license specifically authorizing such export. Not later than 5 days after an application for a license to export any refined petroleum product or residual fuel oil is received, the Secretary shall notify the Congress of such application, together with the name of the exporter, the destination of the proposed export, and the amount and price of the proposed export. Such notification shall be made to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate.
(2) The Secretary may not grant such license during the 30-day period beginning on the date on which notification to the Congress under paragraph (1) is received, unless the President certifies in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate that the proposed export is vital to the national interest and that a delay in issuing the license would adversely affect that interest.
(3) This subsection shall not apply to (A) any export license application for exports to a country with respect to which historical export quotas established by the Secretary on the basis of past trading relationships apply, or (B) any license application for exports to a country if exports under the license would not result in more than 250,000 barrels of refined petroleum products being exported from the United States to such country in any fiscal year.
(4) For purposes of this subsection, “refined petroleum product” means gasoline, kerosene, distillates, propane or butane gas, diesel fuel, and residual fuel oil refined within the United States or entered for consumption within the United States.
(5) The Secretary may extend any time period prescribed in section 10 of this Act [section 2409 of this Appendix] to the extent necessary to take into account delays in action by the Secretary on a license application on account of the provisions of this subsection.
(f) Certain petroleum products
Petroleum products refined in United States Foreign Trade Zones, or in the United States Territory of Guam, from foreign crude oil shall be excluded from any quantitative restrictions imposed under this section except that, if the Secretary finds that a product is in short supply, the Secretary may issue such regulations as may be necessary to limit exports.
(g) Agricultural commodities
(1) The authority conferred by this section shall not be exercised with respect to any agricultural commodity, including fats and oils or animal hides or skins, without the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of Agriculture shall not approve the exercise of such authority with respect to any such commodity during any period for which the supply of such commodity is determined by the Secretary of Agriculture to be in excess of the requirements of the domestic economy except to the extent the President determines that such exercise of authority is required to carry out the policies set forth in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2) of section 3 of this Act [section 2402(2)(A) or (B) of this Appendix]. The Secretary of Agriculture shall, by exercising the authorities which the Secretary of Agriculture has under other applicable provisions of law, collect data with respect to export sales of animal hides and skins.
(2) Upon approval of the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, agricultural commodities purchased by or for use in a foreign country may remain in the United States for export at a later date free from any quantitative limitations on export which may be imposed to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix] subsequent to such approval. The Secretary may not grant such approval unless the Secretary receives adequate assurance and, in conjunction with the Secretary of Agriculture, finds (A) that such commodities will eventually be exported, (B) that neither the sale nor export thereof will result in an excessive drain of scarce materials and have a serious domestic inflationary impact, (C) that storage of such commodities in the United States will not unduly limit the space available for storage of domestically owned commodities, and (D) that the purpose of such storage is to establish a reserve of such commodities for later use, not including resale to or use by another country. The Secretary may issue such regulations as may be necessary to implement this paragraph.
(3)(A) If the President imposes export controls on any agricultural commodity in order to carry out the policy set forth in paragraph (2)(B), (2)(C), (7), or (8) of section 3 of this Act [section 2402(2)(B), (2)(C), (7), or (8) of this Appendix], the President shall immediately transmit a report on such action to the Congress, setting forth the reasons for the controls in detail and specifying the period of time, which may not exceed 1 year, that the controls are proposed to be in effect. If the Congress, within 60 days after the date of its receipt of the report, adopts a joint resolution pursuant to paragraph (4) approving the imposition of the export controls, then such controls shall remain in effect for the period specified in the report, or until terminated by the President, whichever occurs first. If the Congress, within 60 days after the date of its receipt of such report, fails to adopt a joint resolution approving such controls, then such controls shall cease to be effective upon the expiration of that 60-day period.
(B) The provisions of subparagraph (A) and paragraph (4) shall not apply to export controls—
(i) which are extended under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] if the controls, when imposed, were approved by the Congress under subparagraph (A) and paragraph (4); or
(ii) which are imposed with respect to a country as part of the prohibition or curtailment of all exports to that country.
(4)(A) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “joint resolution” means only a joint resolution the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: “That, pursuant to section 7(g)(3) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, the President may impose export controls as specified in the report submitted to the Congress on .”, with the blank space being filled with the appropriate date.
(B) On the day on which a report is submitted to the House of Representatives and the Senate under paragraph (3), a joint resolution with respect to the export controls specified in such report shall be introduced (by request) in the House by the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, for himself and the ranking minority member of the Committee, or by Members of the House designated by the chairman and ranking minority member; and shall be introduced (by request) in the Senate by the majority leader of the Senate, for himself and the minority leader of the Senate, or by Members of the Senate designated by the majority leader and minority leader of the Senate. If either House is not in session on the day on which such a report is submitted, the joint resolution shall be introduced in that House, as provided in the preceding sentence, on the first day thereafter on which that House is in session.
(C) All joint resolutions introduced in the House of Representatives shall be referred to the appropriate committee and all joint resolutions introduced in the Senate shall be referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs.
(D) If the committee of either House to which a joint resolution has been referred has not reported the joint resolution at the end of 30 days after its referral, the committee shall be discharged from further consideration of the joint resolution or of any other joint resolution introduced with respect to the same matter.
(E) A joint resolution under this paragraph shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b)(4) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976. For the purpose of expediting the consideration and passage of joint resolutions reported or discharged pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph, it shall be in order for the Committee on Rules of the House of Representatives to present for consideration a resolution of the House of Representatives providing procedures for the immediate consideration of a joint resolution under this paragraph which may be similar, if applicable, to the procedures set forth in section 601(b)(4) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.
(F) In the case of a joint resolution described in subparagraph (A), if, before the passage by one House of a joint resolution of that House, that House receives a resolution with respect to the same matter from the other House, then—
(i) the procedure in that House shall be the same as if no joint resolution had been received from the other House; but
(ii) the vote on final passage shall be on the joint resolution of the other House.
(5) In the computation of the period of 60 days referred to in paragraph (3) and the period of 30 days referred to in subparagraph (D) of paragraph (4), there shall be excluded the days on which either House of Congress is not in session because of an adjournment of more than 3 days to a day certain or because of an adjournment of the Congress sine die.
(h) Barter agreements
(1) The exportation pursuant to a barter agreement of any goods which may lawfully be exported from the United States, for any goods which may lawfully be imported into the United States, may be exempted, in accordance with paragraph (2) of this subsection, from any quantitative limitation on exports (other than any reporting requirement) imposed to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(C) of this Act [section 2402(2)(C) of this Appendix].
(2) The Secretary shall grant an exemption under paragraph (1) if the Secretary finds, after consultation with the appropriate department or agency of the United States, that—
(A) for the period during which the barter agreement is to be performed—
(i) the average annual quantity of the goods to be exported pursuant to the barter agreement will not be required to satisfy the average amount of such goods estimated to be required annually by the domestic economy and will be surplus thereto; and
(ii) the average annual quantity of the goods to be imported will be less than the average amount of such goods estimated to be required annually to supplement domestic production; and
(B) the parties to such barter agreement have demonstrated adequately that they intend, and have the capacity, to perform such barter agreement.
(3) For purposes of this subsection, the term “barter agreement” means any agreement which is made for the exchange, without monetary consideration, of any goods produced in the United States for any goods produced outside of the United States.
(4) This subsection shall apply only with respect to barter agreements entered into after the effective date of this Act [September 30, 1979].
(i) Unprocessed red cedar
(1) The Secretary shall require a validated license, under the authority contained in subsection (a) of this section, for the export of unprocessed western red cedar (Thuja plicata) logs, harvested from State or Federal lands. The Secretary shall impose quantitative restrictions upon the export of unprocessed western red cedar logs during the 3-year period beginning on the effective date of this Act [September 30, 1979] as follows:
(A) Not more than thirty million board feet scribner of such logs may be exported during the first year of such 3-year period.
(B) Not more than fifteen million board feet scribner of such logs may be exported during the second year of such period.
(C) Not more than five million board feet scribner of such logs may be exported during the third year of such period.
After the end of such 3-year period, no unprocessed western red cedar logs harvested from State or Federal lands may be exported from the United States.
(2) To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall utilize the multiple validated export licenses described in section 4(a)(2) of this Act [section 2403(a)(2) of this Appendix] in lieu of validated licenses for exports under this subsection.
(3) The Secretary shall allocate export licenses to exporters pursuant to this subsection on the basis of a prior history of exportation by such exporters and such other factors as the Secretary considers necessary and appropriate to minimize any hardship to the producers of western red cedar and to further the foreign policy of the United States.
(4) Unprocessed western red cedar logs shall not be considered to be an agricultural commodity for purposes of subsection (g) of this section.
(5) As used in this subsection, the term “unprocessed western red cedar” means red cedar timber which has not been processed into—
(A) lumber of American Lumber Standards Grades of Number 3 dimension or better, or Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau Export R-List Grades of Number 3 common or better;
(B) chips, pulp, and pulp products;
(C) veneer and plywood;
(D) poles, posts, or pilings cut or treated with preservative for use as such and not intended to be further processed; or
(E) shakes and shingles.
(j) Effect of controls on existing contracts
The export restrictions contained in subsection (i) of this section and any export controls imposed under this section shall not affect any contract to harvest unprocessed western red cedar from State lands which was entered into before October 1, 1979, and the performance of which would make the red cedar available for export. Any export controls imposed under this section on any agricultural commodity (including fats, oils, and animal hides and skins) or on any forest product or fishery product, shall not affect any contract to export entered into before the date on which such controls are imposed. For purposes of this subsection, the term “contract to export” includes, but is not limited to, an export sales agreement and an agreement to invest in an enterprise which involves the export of goods or technology.
(k) Oil exports for use by United States military facilities
For purposes of subsection (d) of this section, and for purposes of any export controls imposed under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], shipments of crude oil, refined petroleum products, or partially refined petroleum products from the United States for use by the Department of Defense or United States-supported installations or facilities shall not be considered to be exports.