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Countries' Eligibility for U.S. Arms Sales
These provisions of law are the product of numerous revisions from 1968 through 2010. The text shown here is as codified in Chapter 39 of Title 22 of the U.S. Code.

 

 


See also the CENTRAL guide to Security, Sanctions, and Compliance.

 

 

 


§2753. Eligibility for defense services or defense articles

(a) Prerequisites for consent by President; report to Congress

No defense article or defense service shall be sold or leased by the United States Government under this chapter to any country or international organization, and no agreement shall be entered into for a cooperative project (as defined in section 2767 of this title), unless—

(1) the President finds that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to such country or international organization will strengthen the security of the United States and promote world peace;

(2) the country or international organization shall have agreed not to transfer title to, or possession of, any defense article or related training or other defense service so furnished to it, or produced in a cooperative project (as defined in section 2767 of this title), to anyone not an officer, employee, or agent of that country or international organization (or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or the specified member countries (other than the United States) in the case of a cooperative project) and not to use or permit the use of such article or related training or other defense service for purposes other than those for which furnished unless the consent of the President has first been obtained:

(3) the country or international organization shall have agreed that it will maintain the security of such article or service and will provide substantially the same degree of security protection afforded to such article or service by the United States Government; and

(4) the country or international organization is otherwise eligible to purchase or lease defense articles or defense services.

In considering a request for approval of any transfer of any weapon, weapons system, munitions, aircraft, military boat, military vessel, or other implement of war to another country, the President shall not give his consent under paragraph (2) to the transfer unless the United States itself would transfer the defense article under consideration to that country. In addition, the President shall not give his consent under paragraph (2) to the transfer of any significant defense articles on the United States Munitions List unless the foreign country requesting consent to transfer agrees to demilitarize such defense articles prior to transfer, or the proposed recipient foreign country provides a commitment in writing to the United States Government that it will not transfer such defense articles, if not demilitarized, to any other foreign country or person without first obtaining the consent of the President. The President shall promptly submit a report to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate on the implementation of each agreement entered into pursuant to clause (2) of this subsection.

(b) Necessity of consent by President

The consent of the President under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section or under paragraph (1) of section 2314(a) of this title (as it relates to subparagraph (B) of such paragraph) shall not be required for the transfer by a foreign country or international organization of defense articles sold by the United States under this chapter if a treaty referred to in section 2778(j)(1)(C)(i) of this title permits such transfer without prior consent of the President, or if—

(1) such articles constitute components incorporated into foreign defense articles;

(2) the recipient is the government of a member country of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Government of Australia, the Government of Japan, the Government of the Republic of Korea, the Government of Israel, or the Government of New Zealand;

(3) the recipient is not a country designated under section 2371 of this title;

(4) the United States-origin components are not—

(A) significant military equipment (as defined in section 2794(9) of this title);

(B) defense articles for which notification to Congress is required under section 2776(b) of this title; and

(C) identified by regulation as Missile Technology Control Regime items; and

(5) the foreign country or international organization provides notification of the transfer of the defense articles to the United States Government not later than 30 days after the date of such transfer.

(c) Termination of credits, guaranties or sales; report of violation by President; national security exception; conditions for reinstatement

(1)(A) No credits (including participations in credits) may be issued and no guaranties may be extended for any foreign country under this chapter as hereinafter provided, if such country uses defense articles or defense services furnished under this chapter, or any predecessor Act, in substantial violation (either in terms of quantities or in terms of the gravity of the consequences regardless of the quantities involved) of any agreement entered into pursuant to any such Act (i) by using such articles or services for a purpose not authorized under section 2754 of this title or, if such agreement provides that such articles or services may only be used for purposes more limited than those authorized under section 2754 of this title for a purpose not authorized under such agreement; (ii) by transferring such articles or services to, or permitting any use of such articles or services by, anyone not an officer, employee, or agent of the recipient country without the consent of the President; or (iii) by failing to maintain the security of such articles or services.

(B) No cash sales or deliveries pursuant to previous sales may be made with respect to any foreign country under this chapter as hereinafter provided, if such country uses defense articles or defense services furnished under this chapter, or any predecessor Act, in substantial violation (either in terms of quantity or in terms of the gravity of the consequences regardless of the quantities involved) of any agreement entered into pursuant to any such Act by using such articles or services for a purpose not authorized under section 2754 of this title or, if such agreement provides that such articles or services may only be used for purposes more limited than those authorized under section 2754 of this title, for a purpose not authorized under such agreement.

(2) The President shall report to the Congress promptly upon the receipt of information that a violation described in paragraph (1) of this subsection may have occurred.

(3)(A) A country shall be deemed to be ineligible under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of this subsection, or both subparagraphs (A) and (B) of such paragraph in the case of a violation described in both such paragraphs, if the President so determines and so reports in writing to the Congress, or if the Congress so determines by joint resolution.

(B) Notwithstanding a determination by the President of ineligibility under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection, cash sales and deliveries pursuant to previous sales may be made if the President certifies in writing to the Congress that a termination thereof would have significant adverse impact on United States security, unless the Congress adopts or has adopted a joint resolution pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph with respect to such ineligibility.

(4) A country shall remain ineligible in accordance with paragraph (1) of this subsection until such time as—

(A) the President determines that the violation has ceased; and

(B) the country concerned has given assurances satisfactory to the President that such violation will not recur.

(d) Submission of written certification to Congress; contents; classified material; effective date of consent; report to Congress; transfers not subject to procedures

(1) Subject to paragraph (5), the President may not give his consent under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section or under the third sentence of such subsection, or under section 2314(a)(1) or 2314(a)(4) of this title, to a transfer of any major defense equipment valued (in terms of its original acquisition cost) at $14,000,000 or more, or any defense article or related training or other defense service valued (in terms of its original acquisition cost) at $50,000,000 or more, unless the President submits to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a written certification with respect to such proposed transfer containing—

(A) the name of the country or international organization proposing to make such transfer,

(B) a description of the article or service proposed to be transferred, including its acquisition cost,

(C) the name of the proposed recipient of such article or service,

(D) the reasons for such proposed transfer, and

(E) the date on which such transfer is proposed to be made.

Any certification submitted to Congress pursuant to this paragraph shall be unclassified, except that information regarding the dollar value and number of articles or services proposed to be transferred may be classified if public disclosure thereof would be clearly detrimental to the security of the United States.

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), unless the President states in the certification submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection that an emergency exists which requires that consent to the proposed transfer become effective immediately in the national security interests of the United States, such consent shall not become effective until 30 calendar days after the date of such submission and such consent shall become effective then only if the Congress does not enact, within such 30-day period, a joint resolution prohibiting the proposed transfer.

(B) In the case of a proposed transfer to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or any member country of such Organization, Japan, Australia, the Republic of Korea, Israel, or New Zealand, unless the President states in the certification submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection that an emergency exists which requires that consent to the proposed transfer become effective immediately in the national security interests of the United States, such consent shall not become effective until fifteen calendar days after the date of such submission and such consent shall become effective then only if the Congress does not enact, within such fifteen-day period, a joint resolution prohibiting the proposed transfer.

(C) If the President states in his certification under subparagraph (A) or (B) that an emergency exists which requires that consent to the proposed transfer become effective immediately in the national security interests of the United States, thus waiving the requirements of that subparagraph, the President shall set forth in the certification a detailed justification for his determination, including a description of the emergency circumstances which necessitate immediate consent to the transfer and a discussion of the national security interests involved.

(D)(i) Any joint resolution under this paragraph shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.

(ii) For the purpose of expediting the consideration and enactment of joint resolutions under this paragraph, a motion to proceed to the consideration of any such joint resolution after it has been reported by the appropriate committee shall be treated as highly privileged in the House of Representatives.

(3)(A) Subject to paragraph (5), the President may not give his consent to the transfer of any major defense equipment valued (in terms of its original acquisition cost) at $14,000,000 or more, or of any defense article or defense service valued (in terms of its original acquisition cost) at $50,000,000 or more, the export of which has been licensed or approved under section 2778 of this title or has been exempted from the licensing requirements of this chapter pursuant to a treaty referred to in section 2778(j)(1)(C)(i) of this title where such treaty does not authorize the transfer without prior United States Government approval, unless before giving such consent the President submits to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a certification containing the information specified in subparagraphs (A) through (E) of paragraph (1). Such certification shall be submitted—

(i) at least 15 calendar days before such consent is given in the case of a transfer to a country which is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Israel, or New Zealand; and

(ii) at least 30 calendar days before such consent is given in the case of a transfer to any other country,

unless the President states in his certification that an emergency exists which requires that consent to the proposed transfer become effective immediately in the national security interests of the United States. If the President states in his certification that such an emergency exists (thus waiving the requirements of clause (i) or (ii), as the case may be, and of subparagraph (B)) the President shall set forth in the certification a detailed justification for his determination, including a description of the emergency circumstances which necessitate that consent to the proposed transfer become effective immediately and a discussion of the national security interests involved.

(B) Consent to a transfer subject to subparagraph (A) shall become effective after the end of the 15-day or 30-day period specified in subparagraph (A)(i) or (ii), as the case may be, only if the Congress does not enact, within that period, a joint resolution prohibiting the proposed transfer.

(C)(i) Any joint resolution under this paragraph shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.

(ii) For the purpose of expediting the consideration and enactment of joint resolutions under this paragraph, a motion to proceed to the consideration of any such joint resolution after it has been reported by the appropriate committee shall be treated as highly privileged in the House of Representatives.

(4) This subsection shall not apply—

(A) to transfers of maintenance, repair, or overhaul defense services, or of the repair parts or other defense articles used in furnishing such services, if the transfer will not result in any increase, relative to the original specifications, in the military capability of the defense articles and services to be maintained, repaired, or overhauled;

(B) to temporary transfers of defense articles for the sole purpose of receiving maintenance, repair, or overhaul; or

(C) to arrangements among members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and any of its member countries—

(i) for cooperative cross servicing, or

(ii) for lead-nation procurement if the certification transmitted to the Congress pursuant to section 2776(b) of this title with regard to such lead-nation procurement identified the transferees on whose behalf the lead-nation procurement was proposed.

(5) In the case of a transfer to a member country of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Israel, or New Zealand that does not authorize a new sales territory that includes any country other than such countries, the limitations on consent of the President set forth in paragraphs (1) and (3)(A) shall apply only if the transfer is—

(A) a transfer of major defense equipment valued (in terms of its original acquisition cost) at $25,000,000 or more; or

(B) a transfer of defense articles or defense services valued (in terms of its original acquisition cost) at $100,000,000 or more).

(e) Transfers without consent of President; report to Congress

If the President receives any information that a transfer of any defense article, or related training or other defense service, has been made without his consent as required under this section or under section 2314 of this title, he shall report such information immediately to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.

(f) Sales and leases to countries in breach of nuclear nonproliferation agreements and treaties

No sales or leases shall be made to any country that the President has determined is in material breach of its binding commitments to the United States under international treaties or agreements concerning the nonproliferation of nuclear explosive devices (as defined in section 6305(4) of this title) and unsafeguarded special nuclear material (as defined in section 6305(8) of this title).

(g) Unauthorized use of articles

Any agreement for the sale or lease of any article on the United States Munitions List entered into by the United States Government after November 29, 1999, shall state that the United States Government retains the right to verify credible reports that such article has been used for a purpose not authorized under section 2754 of this title or, if such agreement provides that such article may only be used for purposes more limited than those authorized under section 2754 of this title, for a purpose not authorized under such agreement.