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Report, Entry, and Unlading of Vessels and Vehicles
This law is codified in Chapter 4 of Title 19 of the U.S. Code, with the rest of the Tariff Act of 1930. Note however that most of the provisions identified with that act had predecessors in earlier statutes, nearly all have been significantly modified by numerous laws enacted since 1930, and several were not enacted until well after 1930. These provisions were amended inter alia by the Customs Modernization Act of 1993, as well as other laws before and after.

 

 


See also the CENTRAL guide to Trade Laws of the United States.

 

Other topics in the Tariff Act of 1930 include (in rough order of importance): 

Note that this is not an exhaustive listing. Some items in the Tariff Act of 1930 are not included here due to their obscurity, declining relevance, or because they have been superseded in law or practice by other provisions of trade law.

 

 


Part II—Report, Entry, and Unlading of Vessels and Vehicles

§1431. Manifests

(a) In general

Every vessel required to make entry under section 1434 of this title or obtain clearance under section 60105 of title 46 shall have a manifest that complies with the requirements prescribed under subsection (d) of this section.

(b) Production of manifest

Any manifest required by the Customs Service shall be signed, produced, delivered or electronically transmitted by the master or person in charge of the vessel, aircraft, or vehicle, or by any other authorized agent of the owner or operator of the vessel, aircraft, or vehicle in accordance with the requirements prescribed under subsection (d) of this section. A manifest may be supplemented by bill of lading data supplied by the issuer of such bill. If any irregularity of omission or commission occurs in any way in respect to any manifest or bill of lading data, the owner or operator of the vessel, aircraft or vehicle, or any party responsible for such irregularity, shall be liable for any fine or penalty prescribed by law with respect to such irregularity. The Customs Service may take appropriate action against any of the parties.

(c) Public disclosure of certain manifest information

(1) Except as provided in subparagraph (2), the following information, when contained in a vessel vessel or aircraft manifest, shall be available for public disclosure:

(A) The name and address of each importer or consignee and the name and address of the shipper to such importer or consignee, unless the importer or consignee has made a biennial certification, in accordance with procedures adopted by the Secretary of the Treasury, claiming confidential treatment of such information.

(B) The general character of the cargo.

(C) The number of packages and gross weight.

(D) The name of the vessel, aircraft, or carrier.

(E) The seaport or airport of loading.

(F) The seaport or airport of discharge.

(G) The country of origin of the shipment.

(H) The trademarks appearing on the goods or packages.

(2) The information listed in paragraph (1) shall not be available for public disclosure if—

(A) the Secretary of the Treasury makes an affirmative finding on a shipment-by-shipment basis that disclosure is likely to pose a threat of personal injury or property damage; or

(B) the information is exempt under the provisions of section 552(b)(1) of title 5.

(3) The Secretary of the Treasury, in order to allow for the timely dissemination and publication of the information listed in paragraph (1), shall establish procedures to provide access to manifests. Such procedures shall include provisions for adequate protection against the public disclosure of information not available for public disclosure from such manifests.

(d) Regulations

(1) In general

The Secretary shall by regulation—

(A) specify the form for, and the information and data that must be contained in, the manifest required by subsection (a) of this section;

(B) allow, at the option of the individual producing the manifest and subject to paragraph (2), letters and documents shipments to be accounted for by summary manifesting procedures;

(C) prescribe the manner of production for, and the delivery for electronic transmittal of, the manifest required by subsection (a) of this section; and

(D) prescribe the manner for supplementing manifests with bill of lading data under subsection (b) of this section.

(2) Letters and documents shipments

For purposes of paragraph (1)(B)—

(A) the Customs Service may require with respect to letters and documents shipments—

(i) that they be segregated by country of origin, and

(ii) additional examination procedures that are not necessary for individually manifested shipments;

(B) standard letter envelopes and standard document packs shall be segregated from larger document shipments for purposes of customs inspections; and

(C) the term “letters and documents” means—

(i) data described in General Headnote 4(c) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States,

(ii) securities and similar evidences of value described in heading 4907 of such Schedule, but not monetary instruments defined pursuant to chapter 53 of title 31, and

(iii) personal correspondence, whether on paper, cards, photographs, tapes, or other media.

 

§1431a. Documentation of waterborne cargo

(a) Applicability

This section shall apply to all cargo to be exported that is moved by a vessel carrier from a port in the United States.

(b) Documentation required

(1) No shipper of cargo subject to this section (including an ocean transportation intermediary that is a non-vessel-operating common carrier (as defined in section 40102(16) of title 46) may tender or cause to be tendered to a vessel carrier cargo subject to this section for loading on a vessel in a United States port, unless such cargo is properly documented pursuant to this subsection.

(2) For the purposes of this subsection, cargo shall be considered properly documented if the shipper submits to the vessel carrier or its agent a complete set of shipping documents no later than 24 hours after the cargo is delivered to the marine terminal operator, but under no circumstances later than 24 hours prior to departure of the vessel.

(3) A complete set of shipping documents shall include—

(A) for shipments for which a shipper's export declaration is required, a copy of the export declaration or, if the shipper files such declarations electronically in the Automated Export System, the complete bill of lading, and the master or equivalent shipping instructions, including the Internal Transaction Number (ITN); or

(B) for shipments for which a shipper's export declaration is not required, a shipper's export declaration exemption statement and such other documents or information as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.

(4) The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the time, manner, and form by which shippers shall transmit documents or information required under this subsection to the Customs Service.

(c) Loading undocumented cargo prohibited

(1) No marine terminal operator (as defined in section 40102(14) of title 46) may load, or cause to be loaded, any cargo subject to this section on a vessel unless instructed by the vessel carrier operating the vessel that such cargo has been properly documented in accordance with this section.

(2) When cargo is booked by 1 vessel carrier to be transported on the vessel of another vessel carrier, the booking carrier shall notify the operator of the vessel that the cargo has been properly documented in accordance with this section. The operator of the vessel may rely on such notification in releasing the cargo for loading aboard the vessel.

(d) Reporting of undocumented cargo

(1) In general

A vessel carrier shall notify the Customs Service of any cargo tendered to such carrier that is not properly documented pursuant to this section and that has remained in the marine terminal for more than 48 hours after being delivered to the marine terminal, and the location of the cargo in the marine terminal.

(2) Sharing arrangements

For vessel carriers that are members of vessel sharing agreements (or any other arrangement whereby a carrier moves cargo on another carrier's vessel), the vessel carrier accepting the booking shall be responsible for reporting undocumented cargo, without regard to whether it operates the vessel on which the transportation is to be made.

(3) Reassignment to another vessel

For purposes of this subsection and subsection (f) of this section, if merchandise has been tendered to a marine terminal operator and subsequently reassigned for carriage on another vessel, the merchandise shall be considered properly documented if the information provided reflects carriage on the previously assigned vessel and otherwise meets the requirements of subsection (b) of this section. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, it shall be the responsibility of the vessel carrier to notify the Customs Service promptly of any reassignment of merchandise for carriage on a vessel other than the vessel on which the merchandise was originally assigned.

(4) Multiple containers

If a single shipment is comprised of multiple containers, the 48-hour period described in paragraph (1) shall begin to run from the time the last container of the shipment is delivered to the marine terminal operator. It shall be the responsibility of the person tendering the cargo to inform the carrier that the shipment consists of multiple containers that will be delivered to the marine terminal operator at different times as part of a single shipment.

(e) Assessment of penalties

Whoever is found to have violated subsection (b) of this section shall be liable to the United States for civil penalties in a monetary amount up to the value of the cargo, or the actual cost of the transportation, whichever is greater.

(f) Seizure of undocumented cargo

(1) Any cargo that is not properly documented pursuant to this section and has remained in the marine terminal for more than 48 hours after being delivered to the marine terminal operator shall be subject to search, seizure, and forfeiture.

(2) The shipper of any such cargo is liable to the marine terminal operator and to the ocean carrier for demurrage and other applicable charges for any undocumented cargo which has been notified to or searched or seized by the Customs Service for the entire period the cargo remains under the order and direction of the Customs Service. Unless the cargo is seized by the Customs Service and forfeited, the marine terminal operator and the ocean carrier shall have a lien on the cargo for the amount of the demurrage and other charges.

(g) Effect on other provisions

Nothing in this section shall be construed, interpreted, or applied to relieve or excuse any party from compliance with any obligation or requirement arising under any other law, regulation, or order with regard to the documentation or carriage of cargo.

 

§§1432, 1432a. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §690(b)(1), (c)(5), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2223

§1433. Report of arrival of vessels, vehicles, and aircraft

(a) Vessel arrival

(1) Immediately upon the arrival at any port or place within the United States or the Virgin Islands of—

(A) any vessel from a foreign port or place;

(B) any foreign vessel from a domestic port;

(C) any vessel of the United States carrying foreign merchandise for which entry has not been made; or

(D) any vessel which has visited a hovering vessel or received merchandise while outside the territorial sea;

the master of the vessel shall report the arrival at the nearest customs facility or such other place as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations.

(2) The Secretary may by regulation—

(A) prescribe the manner in which arrivals are to be reported under paragraph (1); and

(B) extend the time in which reports of arrival must be made, but not later than 24 hours after arrival.

(b) Vehicle arrival

(1) Vehicles may arrive in the United States only at border crossing points designated by the Secretary.

(2) Except as otherwise authorized by the Secretary, immediately upon the arrival of any vehicle in the United States at a border crossing point, the person in charge of the vehicle shall—

(A) report the arrival; and

(B) present the vehicle, and all persons and merchandise (including baggage) on board, for inspection;

to the customs officer at the customs facility designated for that crossing point.

(c) Aircraft arrival

The pilot of any aircraft arriving in the United States or the Virgin Islands from any foreign airport or place shall comply with such advance notification, arrival reporting, and landing requirements as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.

(d) Presentation of documentation

The master, person in charge of a vehicle, or aircraft pilot shall present, or transmit pursuant to an electronic data interchange system, to the Customs Service such information, data, documents, papers, or manifests as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.

(e) Prohibition on departures and discharge

Unless otherwise authorized by law, a vessel, aircraft or vehicle after arriving in the United States or Virgin Islands may, but only in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary—

(1) depart from the port, place, or airport of arrival; or

(2) discharge any passenger or merchandise (including baggage).

 

§1434. Entry; vessels

(a) Formal entry

Within 24 hours (or such other period of time as may be provided under subsection (c)(2) of this section) after the arrival at any port or place in the United States of—

(1) any vessel from a foreign port or place;

(2) any foreign vessel from a domestic port;

(3) any vessel of the United States having on board foreign merchandise for which entry has not been made; or

(4) any vessel which has visited a hovering vessel or has delivered or received merchandise while outside the territorial sea;

the master of the vessel shall, unless otherwise provided by law, make formal entry at the nearest customs facility or such other place as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.

(b) Preliminary entry

The Secretary may by regulation permit the master to make preliminary entry of the vessel with the Customs Service in lieu of formal entry or before formal entry is made. In permitting preliminary entry, the Customs Service shall board a sufficient number of vessels to ensure compliance with the laws it enforces.

(c) Regulations

The Secretary may by regulation—

(1) prescribe the manner and format in which entry under subsection (a) of this section or subsection (b) of this section, or both, must be made, and such regulations may provide that any such entry may be made electronically pursuant to an electronic data interchange system;

(2) provide that—

(A) formal entry must be made within a greater or lesser time than 24 hours after arrival, but in no case more than 48 hours after arrival, and

(B) formal entry may be made before arrival; and

(3) authorize the Customs Service to permit entry or preliminary entry of any vessel to be made at a place other than a designated port of entry, under such conditions as may be prescribed.

 

§1435. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §690(b)(2), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2223

 

§1435a. Transferred

 

§1435b. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §690(c)(6), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2223

 

§1436. Penalties for violations of arrival, reporting, entry, and clearance requirements

(a) Unlawful acts

It is unlawful—

(1) to fail to comply with section 1431, 1433, or 1434 of this title or section 60105 of title 46;

(2) to present or transmit, electronically or otherwise, any forged, altered, or false document, paper, information, data or manifest to the Customs Service under section 1431, 1433(d), or 1434 of this title or section 60105 of title 46 without revealing the facts;

(3) to fail to make entry or to obtain clearance as required by section 1434 or 1644 of this title, section 60105 of title 46, or section 1644a(b)(1) or (c)(1) of this title; or

(4) to fail to comply with, or violate, any regulation prescribed under any section referred to in any of paragraphs (1) through (3).

(b) Civil penalty

Any master, person in charge of a vehicle, or aircraft pilot who commits any violation listed in subsection (a) of this section is liable for a civil penalty of $5,000 for the first violation, and $10,000 for each subsequent violation, and any conveyance used in connection with any such violation is subject to seizure and forfeiture.

(c) Criminal penalty

In addition to being liable for a civil penalty under subsection (b) of this section, any master, person in charge of a vehicle, or aircraft pilot who intentionally commits any violation listed in subsection (a) of this section is, upon conviction, liable for a fine of not more than $2,000 or imprisonment for 1 year, or both; except that if the conveyance has, or is discovered to have had, on board any merchandise (other than sea stores or the equivalent for conveyances other than vessels) the importation of which into the United States is prohibited, such individual is liable for an additional fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both.

(d) Additional civil penalty

If any merchandise (other than sea stores or the equivalent for conveyances other than a vessel) is imported or brought into the United States in or aboard a conveyance which was not properly reported or entered, the master, person in charge of a vehicle, or aircraft pilot shall be liable for a civil penalty equal to the value of the merchandise and the merchandise may be seized and forfeited unless properly entered by the importer or consignee. If the merchandise consists of any controlled substance listed in section 1584 of this title, the master, individual in charge of a vehicle, or pilot shall be liable to the penalties prescribed in that section.

 

§1437. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §690(b)(3), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2223

 

§1438. Unlawful return of foreign vessel's papers

It shall not be lawful for any foreign consul to deliver to the master of any foreign vessel the register, or document in lieu thereof, deposited with him in accordance with the provisions of section 1434 of this title, or regulations issued thereunder, until such master shall produce to him a clearance in due form from the Customs Service in the port in which such vessel has entered. Any consul offending against the provisions of this section shall be liable to a fine of not more than $5,000.

 

§§1439, 1440. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §690(b)(4), (5), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2223

 

§1441. Exceptions to vessel entry and clearance requirements

The following vessels shall not be required to make entry under section 1434 of this title or to obtain clearance under section 60105 of title 46:

(1) Vessels of war and public vessels employed for the conveyance of letters and dispatches and not permitted by the laws of the nations to which they belong to be employed in the transportation of passengers or merchandise in trade.

(2) Passenger vessels making three trips or oftener a week between a port of the United States and a foreign port, or vessels used exclusively as ferryboats, carrying passengers, baggage, or merchandise: Provided, That the master of any such vessel shall be required to report such baggage and merchandise to the appropriate customs officer within twenty-four hours after arrival.

(3) Any vessel carrying passengers on excursion from the United States Virgin Islands to the British Virgin Islands and returning, if—

(A) the vessel does not in any way violate the customs or navigation laws of the United States;

(B) the vessel has not visited any hovering vessel; and

(C) the master of the vessel, if there is on board any article required by law to be entered, reports the article to the Customs Service immediately upon arrival.

(4) Any United States documented vessel with recreational endorsement or any undocumented United States pleasure vessel not engaged in trade, if—

(A) the vessel complies with the reporting requirements of section 1433 of this title, and with the customs and navigation laws of the United States;

(B) the vessel has not visited any hovering vessel; and

(C) the master of, and any other person on board, the vessel, if the master or such person has on board any article required by law to be entered or declared, reports such article to the Customs Service immediately upon arrival.

(5) Vessels arriving in distress or for the purpose of taking on bunker coal, bunker oil, sea stores, or ship's stores and which shall depart within twenty-four hours after arrival without having landed or taken on board any passengers, or any merchandise other than bunker coal, bunker oil, sea stores, or ship's stores: Provided, That the master, owner, or agent of such vessel shall report under oath to the appropriate customs officer the hour and date of arrival and departure and the quantity of bunker coal, bunker oil, sea stores, or ship's stores taken on board.

(6) Any vessel required to anchor at the Belle Isle Anchorage in the waters of the Detroit River in the State of Michigan, for the purposes of awaiting the availability of cargo or berthing space or for the purpose of taking on a pilot or awaiting pilot services, or at the direction of the Coast Guard, prior to proceeding to the Port of Toledo, Ohio, where the vessel makes entry under section 1434 of this title or obtains clearance under section 60105 of title 46.

 

§1442. Residue cargo

Any vessel having on board merchandise shown by the manifest to be destined to a foreign port or place may, after the report and entry of such vessel under the provisions of this chapter, proceed to such foreign port of destination with the cargo so destined therefor, without unlading the same and without the payment of duty thereon. Any vessel arriving from a foreign port or place having on board merchandise shown by the manifest to be destined to a port or ports in the United States other than the port of entry at which such vessel first arrived and made entry may proceed with such merchandise from port to port or from district to district for the unlading thereof.

 

§§1443 to 1445. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §690(b)(6), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2223

 

§1446. Supplies and stores retained on board

Vessels arriving in the United States from foreign ports may retain on board, without the payment of duty, all coal and other fuel supplies, ships’ stores, sea stores, and the legitimate equipment of such vessels. Any such supplies, ships’ stores, sea stores, or equipment landed and delivered from such vessel shall be considered and treated as imported merchandise: Provided, That bunker coal, bunker oil, ships’ stores, sea stores, or the legitimate equipment of vessels belonging to regular lines plying between foreign ports and the United States, which are delayed in port for any cause, may be transferred under a permit by the appropriate customs officer and under customs supervision from the vessel so delayed to another vessel of the same line and owner, and engaged in the foreign trade, without the payment of duty thereon.

 

§1447. Place of entry and unlading

It shall be unlawful to make entry of any vessel or to unlade the cargo or any part thereof of any vessel elsewhere than at a port of entry: Provided, That upon good cause therefor being shown, the Commissioner of Customs may permit entry of any vessel to be made at a place other than a port of entry designated by him, under such conditions as he shall prescribe: And provided further, That any vessel laden with merchandise in bulk may proceed after entry of such vessel to any place designated by the Secretary of the Treasury for the purpose of unlading such cargo, under the supervision of customs officers if the Customs Service considers the same necessary, and in such case the compensation and expenses of such officers shall be reimbursed to the Government by the party in interest.

 

§1448. Unlading

(a) Permits and preliminary entries

Except as provided in section 1441 of this title (relating to vessels not required to enter or clear), no merchandise, passengers, or baggage shall be unladen from any vessel required to make entry under section 1434 of this title, or vehicle required to report arrival under section 1433 of this title, until entry of such vessel or report of the arrival of such vehicle has been made and a permit for the unlading of the same issued or transmitted pursuant to an electronic data interchange system by the Customs Service. After the entry of any vessel or report of the arrival of any vehicle, the Customs Service may issue a permit, electronically pursuant to an authorized electronic data interchange system or otherwise, to the master of the vessel, or to the person in charge of the vehicle, to unlade merchandise or baggage, but except as provided in subdivision (b) of this section merchandise or baggage so unladen shall be retained at the place of unlading until entry therefor is made and a permit for its delivery granted, and the owners of the vessel or vehicle from which any imported merchandise is unladen prior to entry of such merchandise shall be liable for the payment of the duties accruing on any part thereof that may be removed from the place of unlading without a permit therefor having been issued. The owner or master of any vessel or vehicle, or agent thereof, shall notify the Customs Service of any merchandise or baggage so unladen for which entry is not made within the time prescribed by law or regulation. The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe administrative penalties not to exceed $1,000 for each bill of lading for which notice is not given. Any such administrative penalty shall be subject to mitigation and remittance under section 1618 of this title. Such unentered merchandise or baggage shall be the responsibility of the master or person in charge of the importing vessel or vehicle, or agent thereof, until it is removed from the carrier's control in accordance with section 1490 of this title.

(b) Special delivery permit

The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to provide by regulations for the issuing of special permits for delivery, prior to formal entry therefor, of perishable articles and other articles, the immediate delivery of which is necessary.

 

§1449. Unlading at port of entry

Except as provided in sections 1442 and 1447 of this title (relating to residue cargo and to bulk cargo respectively), merchandise and baggage imported in any vessel by sea shall be unladen at the port of entry to which such vessel is destined, unless (1) such vessel is compelled by any cause to put into another port of entry, and the Customs Service issues a permit for the unlading of such merchandise or baggage at such port, or (2) the Secretary of the Treasury, because of an emergency existing at the port of destination, authorizes such vessel to proceed to another port of entry. Merchandise and baggage so unladen may be entered in the same manner as other imported merchandise or baggage and may be treated as unclaimed merchandise or baggage and stored at the expense and risk of the owner thereof, or may be reladen without entry upon the vessel from which it was unladen for transportation to its destination.

 

§1450. Unlading on Sundays, holidays, or during overtime hours

No merchandise, baggage, or passengers arriving in the United States from any foreign port or place, and no bonded merchandise or baggage being transported from one port to another, shall be unladen from the carrying aircraft, vessel or vehicle on Sunday, a holiday, or during overtime hours, except under special license granted by the appropriate customs officer under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

 

§1451. Extra compensation

Before any such special license to unlade shall be granted, the master, owner, or agent of such vessel or vehicle, or the person in charge of such vehicle, shall be required to deposit sufficient money to pay, or to give a bond in an amount to be fixed by the Secretary conditioned to pay, the compensation and expenses of the customs officers and employees assigned to duty in connection with such unlading at night or on Sunday or a holiday, in accordance with the provisions of section 267 of this title. In lieu of such deposit or bond the owner or agent of any vessel or vehicle or line of vessels or vehicles may execute a bond in an amount to be fixed by the Secretary of the Treasury to cover and include the issuance of special licenses for the unlading of such vessels or vehicles for a period not to exceed one year. Upon a request made by the owner, master, or person in charge of a vessel or vehicle, or by or on behalf of a common carrier or by or on behalf of the owner or consignee of any merchandise or baggage, for overtime services of customs officers or employees at night or on a Sunday or holiday, the appropriate customs officer shall assign sufficient customs officers or employees if available to perform any such services which may lawfully be performed by them during regular hours of business, but only if the person requesting such services deposits sufficient money to pay, or gives a bond in an amount to be fixed by the 1 such customs officer, conditioned to pay the compensation and expenses of such customs officers and employees, who shall be entitled to rates of compensation fixed on the same basis and payable in the same manner and upon the same terms and conditions as in the case of customs officers and employees assigned to duty in connection with lading or unlading at night or on Sunday or a holiday. Nothing in this section shall be construed to impair the existing authority of the Treasury Department to assign customs officers or employees to regular tours of duty at nights or on Sundays or holidays when such assignments are in the public interest: Provided, That the provisions of this section, sections 1450 and 1452 of this title, and the provisions of section 267 of this title insofar as such section 267 of this title requires payment of compensation by the master, owner, agent, or consignee of a vessel or conveyance, shall not apply to the owner, operator, or agent of a highway vehicle, bridge, tunnel, or ferry, between the United States and Canada or between the United States and Mexico, nor to the lading or unlading of merchandise, baggage, or persons arriving in or departing from the United States by motor vehicle, trolley car, on foot, or by other means of highway travel upon, over, or through any highway, bridge, tunnel, or ferry. At ports of entry and customs stations where any merchandise, baggage, or persons shall arrive in or depart from the United States by motor vehicle, trolley car, on foot, or by other means of highway travel upon, over, or through any highway, bridge, tunnel, or ferry, between the United States and Canada or between the United States and Mexico, the appropriate customs officer, under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe, shall assign customs officers and employees to duty at such times during the twenty-four hours of each day, including Sundays and holidays, as the Secretary of the Treasury in his discretion may determine to be necessary to facilitate the inspection and passage of such merchandise, baggage, or persons. Officers and employees assigned to such duty at night or on Sunday or a holiday shall be paid compensation in accordance with existing law as interpreted by the United States Supreme Court in the case of the United States v. Howard C. Myers (320 U.S. 561); but all compensation payable to such customs officers and employees shall be paid by the United States without requiring any license, bond, obligation, financial undertaking, or payment in connection therewith on the part of any owner, operator, or agent of any such highway vehicle, bridge, tunnel, or ferry, or other person. As used in this section, the term “ferry” shall mean a passenger service operated with the use of vessels which arrive in the United States on regular schedules at intervals of at least once each hour during any period in which customs service is to be furnished without reimbursement as above provided.

 

§1451a. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13811(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 670

 

§1452. Lading on Sundays, holidays, or at night

No merchandise or baggage entered for transportation under bond or for exportation with the benefit of drawback, or other merchandise or baggage required to be laden under customs supervision, shall be laden on any vessel or vehicle at night or on Sunday or a holiday, except under special license therefor to be issued by the appropriate customs officer under the same conditions and limitations as pertain to the unlading of imported merchandise or merchandise being transported in bond.

 

§1453. Lading and unlading of merchandise or baggage; penalties

If any merchandise or baggage is laden on, or unladen from, any vessel or vehicle without a special license or permit therefor issued by the appropriate customs officer, the master of such vessel or the person in charge of such vehicle and every other person who knowingly is concerned, or who aids therein, or in removing or otherwise securing such merchandise or baggage, shall each be liable to a penalty equal to the value of the merchandise or baggage so laden or unladen, and such merchandise or baggage shall be subject to forfeiture, and if the value thereof is $500 or more, the vessel or vehicle on or from which the same shall be laden or unladen shall be subject to forfeiture.

 

§1454. Unlading of passengers; penalty

If any passenger is unladen from any vessel or vehicle without a special license or permit therefor issued by the appropriate customs officer, the master of such vessel or the person in charge of such vehicle and every other person who knowingly is concerned, or who aids therein, shall each be liable to a penalty of $1,000 for the first passenger and $500 for each additional such passenger so unladen.

 

§1455. Boarding and discharging inspectors

The appropriate customs officer for the district in which any vessel or vehicle arrives from a foreign port or place may put on board of such vessel or vehicle while within such district, and if necessary while going from one district to another, one or more inspectors or other customs officers to examine the cargo and contents of such vessel or vehicle and superintend the unlading thereof, and to perform such other duties as may be required by law or the customs regulations for the protection of the revenue. Such inspector or other customs officer may, if he shall deem the same necessary for the protection of the revenue, secure the hatches or other communications or outlets of such vessel or vehicle with customs seals or other proper fastenings while such vessel is not in the act of unlading and such fastenings shall not be removed without permission of the inspector or other customs officer. Such inspector or other customs officer may require any vessel or vehicle to discontinue or suspend unlading during the continuance of unfavorable weather or any conditions rendering the discharge of cargo dangerous or detrimental to the revenue. Any officer, owner, agent of the owner, or member of the crew of any such vessel who obstructs or hinders any such inspector or other customs officer in the performance of his duties, shall be liable to a penalty of not more than $500.

 

§1456. Compensation and expenses of inspectors between ports; reimbursement

The compensation of any inspector or other customs officer, stationed on any vessel or vehicle while proceeding from one port to another and returning therefrom, shall be reimbursed to the Government by the master or owner of such vessel, together with the actual expense of such inspector or customs officer for subsistence, or in lieu of such expenses such vessel or vehicle may furnish such inspector or customs officer, the accommodations usually supplied to passengers.

 

§1457. Time for unlading

Whenever any merchandise remains on board any vessel or vehicle from a foreign port more than twenty-five days after the date on which report of said vessel or vehicle was made, the appropriate customs officer may take possession of such merchandise and cause the same to be unladen at the expense and risk of the owners thereof, or may place one or more inspectors or other customs officers on board of said vessel or vehicle to protect the revenue. The compensation and expenses of any such inspector or customs officer for subsistence while on board of such vessel or vehicle shall be reimbursed to the Government by the owner or master of such vessel or vehicle.

 

§1458. Bulk cargo, time for unlading

The limitation of time for unlading shall not extend to vessels laden exclusively with merchandise in bulk consigned to one consignee and arriving at a port for orders, but if the master of such vessel requests a longer time to discharge its cargo, the compensation of the inspectors or other customs officers whose services are required in connection with the unlading shall, for every day consumed in unlading in excess of twenty-five days from the date of the vessel's entry, be reimbursed by the master or owner of such vessel.

 

§1459. Reporting requirements for individuals

(a) Individuals arriving other than by conveyance

Except as otherwise authorized by the Secretary, individuals arriving in the United States other than by vessel, vehicle, or aircraft shall—

(1) enter the United States only at a border crossing point designated by the Secretary; and

(2) immediately—

(A) report the arrival, and

(B) present themselves, and all articles accompanying them for inspection;

to the customs officer at the customs facility designated for that crossing point.

(b) Individuals arriving by reported conveyance

Except as otherwise authorized by the Secretary, passengers and crew members aboard a conveyance the arrival in the United States of which was made or reported in accordance with section 1433 or 1644 of this title or section 1644a(b)(1) or (c)(1) of this title, or in accordance with applicable regulations, shall remain aboard the conveyance until authorized to depart the conveyance by the appropriate customs officer. Upon departing the conveyance, the passengers and crew members shall immediately report to the designated customs facility with all articles accompanying them.

(c) Individuals arriving by unreported conveyance

Except as otherwise authorized by the Secretary, individuals aboard a conveyance the arrival in the United States of which was not made or reported in accordance with the laws or regulations referred to in subsection (b) of this section shall immediately notify a customs officer and report their arrival, together with appropriate information concerning the conveyance on or in which they arrived, and present their property for customs examination and inspection.

(d) Departure from designated customs facilities

Except as otherwise authorized by the Secretary, any person required to report to a designated customs facility under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section may not depart that facility until authorized to do so by the appropriate customs officer.

(e) Unlawful acts

It is unlawful—

(1) to fail to comply with subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section;

(2) to present any forged, altered, or false document or paper to a customs officer under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section without revealing the facts;

(3) to violate subsection (d) of this section; or

(4) to fail to comply with, or violate, any regulation prescribed to carry out subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section.

(f) Civil penalty

Any individual who violates any provision of subsection (e) of this section is liable for a civil penalty of $5,000 for the first violation, and $10,000 for each subsequent violation.

(g) Criminal penalty

In addition to being liable for a civil penalty under subsection (f) of this section, any individual who intentionally violates any provision of subsection (e) of this section is, upon conviction, liable for a fine of not more than $5,000, or imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both.

 

§1460. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–570, title III, §3115(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–83

 

§1461. Inspection of merchandise and baggage

All merchandise and baggage imported or brought in from any contiguous country, except as otherwise provided by law or by regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury, shall be unladen in the presence of and be inspected by a customs officer at the first port of entry at which the same shall arrive; and such officer may require the owner, or his agent, or other person having charge or possession of any trunk, traveling bag, sack, valise, or other container, or of any closed vehicle, to open the same for inspection, or to furnish a key or other means for opening the same.

 

§1462. Forfeiture

If such owner, agent, or other person shall fail to comply with his demand, the officer shall retain such trunk, traveling bag, sack, valise, or other container or closed vehicle, and open the same, and, as soon thereafter as may be practicable, examine the contents, and if any article subject to duty or any article the importation of which is prohibited is found therein, the whole contents and the container or vehicle shall be subject to forfeiture.

 

§1463. Sealed vessels and vehicles

To avoid unnecessary inspection of merchandise imported from a contiguous country at the first port of arrival, the master of the vessel or the person in charge of the vehicle in which such merchandise is imported may apply to the customs officer of the United States stationed in the place from which such merchandise is shipped, and such officer may seal such vessel or vehicle. Any vessel or vehicle so sealed may proceed with such merchandise to the port of destination under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

 

§1464. Penalties in connection with sealed vessels and vehicles

If the master of such vessel or the person in charge of any such vehicle fails to proceed with reasonable promptness to the port of destination and to deliver such vessel or vehicle to the proper officers of the customs, or fails to proceed in accordance with such regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury, or unlades such merchandise or any part thereof at other than such port of destination, or disposes of any such merchandise by sale or otherwise, he shall be guilty of a felony and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both; and any such vessel or vehicle, with its contents, shall be subject to forfeiture.

 

§1465. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §690(b)(7), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2223

 

§1466. Equipment and repairs of vessels

(a) Vessels subject to duty; penalties

The equipments, or any part thereof, including boats, purchased for, or the repair parts or materials to be used, or the expenses of repairs made in a foreign country upon a vessel documented under the laws of the United States to engage in the foreign or coasting trade, or a vessel intended to be employed in such trade, shall, on the first arrival of such vessel in any port of the United States, be liable to entry and the payment of an ad valorem duty of 50 per centum on the cost thereof in such foreign country. If the owner or master willfully or knowingly neglects or fails to report, make entry, and pay duties as herein required, or if he makes any false statement in respect of such purchases or repairs without reasonable cause to believe the truth of such statements, or aids or procures the making of any false statement as to any matter material thereto without reasonable cause to believe the truth of such statement, such vessel, or a monetary amount up to the value thereof as determined by the Secretary, to be recovered from the owner, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture. For the purposes of this section, compensation paid to members of the regular crew of such vessel in connection with the installation of any such equipments or any part thereof, or the making of repairs, in a foreign country, shall not be included in the cost of such equipment or part thereof, or of such repairs.

(b) Notice

If the appropriate customs officer has reasonable cause to believe a violation has occurred and determines that further proceedings are warranted, he shall issue to the person concerned a written notice of his intention to issue a penalty claim. Such notice shall—

(1) describe the circumstances of the alleged violation;

(2) specify all laws and regulations allegedly violated;

(3) disclose all the material facts which establish the alleged violation;

(4) state the estimated loss of lawful duties, if any, and taking into account all of the circumstances, the amount of the proposed penalty; and

(5) inform such person that he shall have a reasonable opportunity to make representations, both oral and written, as to why such penalty claim should not be issued.

(c) Violation

After considering representations, if any, made by the person concerned pursuant to the notice issued under subsection (b) of this section, the appropriate customs officer shall determine whether any violation of subsection (a) of this section, as alleged in the notice, has occurred. If such officer determines that there was no violation, he shall promptly notify, in writing, the person to whom the notice was sent. If such officer determines that there was a violation, he shall issue a written penalty claim to such person. The written penalty claim shall specify all changes in the information provided under paragraphs (1) through (4) of subsection (b) of this section.

(d) Remission for necessary repairs

If the owner or master of such vessel furnishes good and sufficient evidence that—

(1) such vessel, while in the regular course of her voyage, was compelled, by stress of weather or other casualty, to put into such foreign port and purchase such equipments, or make such repairs, to secure the safety and seaworthiness of the vessel to enable her to reach her port of destination;

(2) such equipments or parts thereof or repair parts or materials, were manufactured or produced in the United States, and the labor necessary to install such equipments or to make such repairs was performed by residents of the United States, or by members of the regular crew of such vessel; or

(3) such equipments, or parts thereof, or materials, or labor, were used as dunnage for cargo, or for the packing or shoring thereof, or in the erection of temporary bulkheads or other similar devices for the control of bulk cargo, or in the preparation (without permanent repair or alteration) of tanks for the carriage of liquid cargo;

then the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to remit or refund such duties, and such vessel shall not be liable to forfeiture, and no license or enrollment and license, or renewal of either, shall hereafter be issued to any such vessel until the collector to whom application is made for the same shall be satisfied, from the oath of the owner or master, that all such equipments or parts thereof or materials and repairs made within the year immediately preceding such application have been duly accounted for under the provisions of this section, and the duties accruing thereon duly paid; and if such owner or master shall refuse to take such oath, or take it falsely, the vessel shall be seized and forfeited.

(e) Exclusions for arrivals two or more years after last departure

(1) In the case of any vessel referred to in subsection (a) of this section that arrives in a port of the United States two years or more after its last departure from a port in the United States, the duties imposed by this section shall apply only with respect to—

(A) fish nets and netting, and

(B) other equipments and parts thereof, repair parts and materials purchased, or repairs made, during the first six months after the last departure of such vessel from a port of the United States.

(2) If such vessel is designed and used primarily for transporting passengers or property, paragraph (1) shall not apply if the vessel departed from the United States for the sole purpose of obtaining such equipments, parts, materials, or repairs.

(f) Civil aircraft exception

The duty imposed under subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to the cost of equipments, or any part thereof, purchased, of repair parts or materials used, or of repairs made in a foreign country with respect to a United States civil aircraft, within the meaning of general note 3(c)(iv) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

(g) Fish net and netting purchases and repairs

The duty imposed by subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to entries on and after October 1, 1979, and before January 1, 1982, of—

(1) tuna purse seine nets and netting which are equipments or parts thereof,

(2) repair parts for such nets and netting, or materials used in repairing such nets and netting, or

(3) the expenses of repairs of such nets and netting,

for any United States documented tuna purse seine vessel of greater than 500 tons carrying capacity or any United States tuna purse seine vessel required to carry a certificate of inclusion under the general permit issued to the American Tunaboat Association pursuant to section 1374 of title 16.

(h) Foreign repair of vessels

The duty imposed by subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to—

(1) the cost of any equipment, or any part of equipment, purchased for, or the repair parts or materials to be used, or the expense of repairs made in a foreign country with respect to, LASH (Lighter Aboard Ship) barges documented under the laws of the United States and utilized as cargo containers;

(2) the cost of spare repair parts or materials (other than nets or nettings) which the owner or master of the vessel certifies are intended for use aboard a cargo vessel, documented under the laws of the United States and engaged in the foreign or coasting trade, for installation or use on such vessel, as needed, in the United States, at sea, or in a foreign country, but only if duty is paid under appropriate commodity classifications of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States upon first entry into the United States of each such spare part purchased in, or imported from, a foreign country;

(3) the cost of spare parts necessarily installed before the first entry into the United States, but only if duty is paid under appropriate commodity classifications of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States upon first entry into the United States of each such spare part purchased in, or imported from, a foreign country; or

(4) the cost of equipment, repair parts, and materials that are installed on a vessel documented under the laws of the United States and engaged in the foreign or coasting trade, if the installation is done by members of the regular crew of such vessel while the vessel is on the high seas, in foreign waters, or in a foreign port, and does not involve foreign shipyard repairs by foreign labor.

Declaration and entry shall not be required with respect to the installation, equipment, parts, and materials described in paragraph (4).

 

§1467. Special inspection, examination, and search

Whenever a vessel from a foreign port or place or from a port or place in any Territory or possession of the United States arrives at a port or place in the United States or the Virgin Islands, whether directly or via another port or place in the United States or the Virgin Islands, the appropriate customs officer for such port or place of arrival may, under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe and for the purpose of assuring compliance with any law, regulation, or instruction which the Secretary of the Treasury or the Customs Service is authorized to enforce, cause inspection, examination, and search to be made of the persons, baggage, and merchandise discharged or unladen from such vessel, whether or not any or all such persons, baggage, or merchandise has previously been inspected, examined, or searched by officers of the customs.