SUBCHAPTER VI—GENERAL PROVISIONS
For purposes of this chapter—
(1) The term “duty” includes the rate and form of any import duty, including but not limited to tariff-rate quotas.
(2) The term “other import restriction” includes a limitation, prohibition, charge, or exaction other than duty, imposed on importation or imposed for the regulation of importation. The term does not include any orderly marketing agreement.
(3) The term “ad valorem” includes ad valorem equivalent. Whenever any limitation on the amount by which or to which any rate of duty may be decreased or increased pursuant to a trade agreement is expressed in terms of an ad valorem percentage, the ad valorem amount taken into account for purposes of such limitation shall be determined by the President on the basis of the value of imports of the articles concerned during the most recent representative period.
(4) The term “ad valorem equivalent” means the ad valorem equivalent of a specific rate or, in the case of a combination of rates including a specific rate, the sum of the ad valorem equivalent of the specific rate and of the ad valorem rate. The ad valorem equivalent shall be determined by the President on the basis of the value of imports of the article concerned during the most recent representative period. In determining the value of imports, the President shall utilize, to the maximum extent practicable, the standards of valuation contained in section 1401a or 1402 of this title (as in effect before the effective date of the amendments made by title II of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979) or in section 1401a of this title (as in effect on the effective date of such title II amendments) whichever is applicable to the article concerned during such representative period.
(5) An imported article is “directly competitive with” a domestic article at an earlier or later stage of processing, and a domestic article is “directly competitive with” an imported article at an earlier or later stage of processing, if the importation of the article has an economic effect on producers of the domestic article comparable to the effect of importation of articles in the same stage of processing as the domestic article. For purposes of this paragraph, the unprocessed article is at an earlier stage of processing.
(6) The term “modification”, as applied to any duty or other import restriction, includes the elimination of any duty or other import restriction.
(7) The term “existing” means (A) when used, without the specification of any date, with respect to any matter relating to entering into or carrying out a trade agreement or other action authorized by this chapter, existing on the day on which such trade agreement is entered into or such other action is taken; and (B) when used with respect to a rate of duty, the nonpreferential rate of duty (however established, and even though temporarily suspended by Act of Congress or otherwise) set forth in rate column numbered 1 of chapters 1 through 97 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States on the date specified or (if no date is specified) on the day referred to in clause (A).
(8) A product of a country or area is an article which is the growth, produce, or manufacture of such country or area.
(9) The term “nondiscriminatory treatment” means trade treatment based on normal trade relations (known under international law as most-favored-nation treatment).
(10) The term “commerce” includes services associated with international trade.