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Trade Act of 1974:
The Jackson-Vanik Amendment
This law is codified in Chapter 12 of Title 19 of the U.S. Code as part of the Trade Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-618), based on the place of the original version of this statute in that enactment, but most of the 1974 law has been substantially rewritten in the omnibus trade bills enacted in 1979, 1984, 1988, 2000, and 2002, as well as several other laws enacted through 2011.  

 

Other provisions originating in the Trade Act of 1974 include:

Note that this list does not include those items now classified in the U.S. Code as part of the Trade Act of 1974 but that in fact originated in the other omnibus trade bills of 1979-2002 (e.g., the Special 301 law), nor those items that originated in earlier laws but were amended by the 1974 law (e.g., the Trade Adjustment Assistance law).

 

See also the CENTRAL guides to the Trade Laws of the United States.

 

 

 

 

 


SUBCHAPTER IV—TRADE RELATIONS WITH COUNTRIES NOT RECEIVING NONDISCRIMINATORY TREATMENT

Part 1—Trade Relations With Certain Countries

§2431. Exception of products of certain countries or areas

Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, the President shall continue to deny nondiscriminatory treatment to the products of any country, the products of which were not eligible for the rates set forth in rate column numbered 1 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States on January 3, 1975.

 

§2432. Freedom of emigration in East-West trade

(a) Actions of nonmarket economy countries making them ineligible for normal trade relations, programs of credits, credit guarantees, or investment guarantees, or commercial agreements

To assure the continued dedication of the United States to fundamental human rights, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, on or after January 3, 1975, products from any nonmarket economy country shall not be eligible to receive nondiscriminatory treatment (normal trade relations), such country shall not participate in any program of the Government of the United States which extends credits or credit guarantees or investment guarantees, directly or indirectly, and the President of the United States shall not conclude any commercial agreement with any such country, during the period beginning with the date on which the President determines that such country—

(1) denies its citizens the right or opportunity to emigrate;

(2) imposes more than a nominal tax on emigration or on the visas or other documents required for emigration, for any purpose or cause whatsoever; or

(3) imposes more than a nominal tax, levy, fine, fee, or other charge on any citizen as a consequence of the desire of such citizen to emigrate to the country of his choice,

and ending on the date on which the President determines that such country is no longer in violation of paragraph (1), (2), or (3).

(b) Presidential determination and report to Congress that nation is not violating freedom of emigration

After January 3, 1975, (A) products of a nonmarket economy country may be eligible to receive nondiscriminatory treatment (normal trade relations), (B) such country may participate in any program of the Government of the United States which extends credits or credit guarantees or investment guarantees, and (C) the President may conclude a commercial agreement with such country, only after the President has submitted to the Congress a report indicating that such country is not in violation of paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) of this section. Such report with respect to such country shall include information as to the nature and implementation of emigration laws and policies and restrictions or discrimination applied to or against persons wishing to emigrate. The report required by this subsection shall be submitted initially as provided herein and, with current information, on or before each June 30 and December 31 thereafter so long as such treatment is received, such credits or guarantees are extended, or such agreement is in effect.

(c) Waiver authority of President

(1) During the 18-month period beginning on January 3, 1975, the President is authorized to waive by Executive order the application of subsections (a) and (b) of this section with respect to any country, if he reports to the Congress that—

(A) he has determined that such waiver will substantially promote the objectives of this section; and

(B) he has received assurances that the emigration practices of that country will henceforth lead substantially to the achievement of the objectives of this section.

(2) During any period subsequent to the 18-month period referred to in paragraph (1), the President is authorized to waive by Executive order the application of subsections (a) and (b) of this section with respect to any country, if the waiver authority granted by this subsection continues to apply to such country pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, and if he reports to the Congress that—

(A) he has determined that such waiver will substantially promote the objectives of this section; and

(B) he has received assurances that the emigration practices of that country will henceforth lead substantially to the achievement of the objectives of this section.

(3) A waiver with respect to any country shall terminate on the day after the waiver authority granted by this subsection ceases to be effective with respect to such country pursuant to subsection (d) of this section. The President may, at any time, terminate by Executive order any waiver granted under this subsection.

(d) Extension of waiver authority

(1) If the President determines that the further extension of the waiver authority granted under subsection (c) of this section will substantially promote the objectives of this section, he may recommend further extensions of such authority for successive 12-month periods. Any such recommendations shall—

(A) be made not later than 30 days before the expiration of such authority;

(B) be made in a document transmitted to the House of Representatives and the Senate setting forth his reasons for recommending the extension of such authority; and

(C) include, for each country with respect to which a waiver granted under subsection (c) of this section is in effect, a determination that continuation of the waiver applicable to that country will substantially promote the objectives of this section, and a statement setting forth his reasons for such determination.

If the President recommends the further extension of such authority, such authority shall continue in effect until the end of the 12-month period following the end of the previous 12-month extension with respect to any country (except for any country with respect to which such authority has not been extended under this subsection), unless a joint resolution described in section 2193(a) of this title is enacted into law pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (2).

(2)(A) The requirements of this paragraph are met if the joint resolution is enacted under the procedures set forth in section 2193 of this title, and—

(i) the Congress adopts and transmits the joint resolution to the President before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date the waiver authority would expire but for an extension under paragraph (1), and

(ii) if the President vetoes the joint resolution, each House of Congress votes to override such veto on or before the later of the last day of the 60-day period referred to in clause (i) or the last day of the 15-day period (excluding any day described in section 2194(b) of this title) beginning on the date the Congress receives the veto message from the President.

(B) If a joint resolution is enacted into law under the provisions of this paragraph, the waiver authority applicable to any country with respect to which the joint resolution disapproves of the extension of such authority shall cease to be effective as of the day after the 60-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of the joint resolution.

(C) A joint resolution to which this subsection and section 2193 of this title apply may be introduced at any time on or after the date the President transmits to the Congress the document described in paragraph (1)(B).

(e) Countries not covered

This section shall not apply to any country the products of which are eligible for the rates set forth in rate column numbered 1 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States on January 3, 1975.

 

§2433. United States personnel missing in action in Southeast Asia

(a) Penalty for noncooperating countries

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the President determines that a nonmarket economy country is not cooperating with the United States—

(1) to achieve a complete accounting of all United States military and civilian personnel who are missing in action in Southeast Asia,

(2) to repatriate such personnel who are alive, and

(3) to return the remains of such personnel who are dead to the United States,

then, during the period beginning with the date of such determination and ending on the date on which the President determines such country is cooperating with the United States, he may provide that—

(A) the products of such country may not receive nondiscriminatory treatment,

(B) such country may not participate, directly or indirectly, in any program under which the United States extends credit, credit guarantees, or investment guarantees, and

(C) no commercial agreement entered into under this subchapter between such country and the United States will take effect.

(b) Exception

This section shall not apply to any country the products of which are eligible for the rates set forth in rate column numbered 1 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States on January 3, 1975.

 

§2434. Extension of nondiscriminatory treatment

(a) Presidential proclamation

Subject to the provisions of section 2435(c) of this title, the President may by proclamation extend nondiscriminatory treatment to the products of a foreign country which has entered into a bilateral commercial agreement referred to in section 2435 of this title.

(b) Limitation on period of effectiveness

The application of nondiscriminatory treatment shall be limited to the period of effectiveness of the obligations of the United States to such country under such bilateral commercial agreement. In addition, in the case of any foreign country receiving nondiscriminatory treatment pursuant to this subchapter which has entered into an agreement with the United States regarding the settlement of lendlease reciprocal aid and claims, the application of such nondiscriminatory treatment shall be limited to periods during which such country is not in arrears on its obligations under such agreement.

(c) Suspension or withdrawal of extensions of nondiscriminatory treatment

The President may at any time suspend or withdraw any extension of nondiscriminatory treatment to any country pursuant to subsection (a) of this section and thereby cause all products of such country to be dutiable at the rates set forth in rate column numbered 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

 

§2435. Commercial agreements

(a) Presidential authority

Subject to the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of this section, the President may authorize the entry into force of bilateral commercial agreements providing nondiscriminatory treatment to the products of countries heretofore denied such treatment whenever he determines that such agreements with such countries will promote the purposes of this chapter and are in the national interest.

(b) Terms of agreements

Any such bilateral commercial agreement shall—

(1) be limited to an initial period specified in the agreement which shall be no more than 3 years from the date the agreement enters into force; except that it may be renewable for additional periods, each not to exceed 3 years; if—

(A) a satisfactory balance of concessions in trade and services has been maintained during the life of such agreement, and

(B) the President determines that actual or foreseeable reductions in United States tariffs and nontariff barriers to trade resulting from multilateral negotiations are satisfactorily reciprocated by the other party to the bilateral agreement;

(2) provide that it is subject to suspension or termination at any time for national security reasons, or that the other provisions of such agreement shall not limit the rights of any party to take any action for the protection of its security interests;

(3) include safeguard arrangements (A) providing for prompt consultations whenever either actual or prospective imports cause or threaten to cause, or significantly contribute to, market disruption and (B) authorizing the imposition of such import restrictions as may be appropriate to prevent such market disruption;

(4) if the other party to the bilateral agreement is not a party to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, provide rights for United States nationals with respect to patents and trademarks in such country not less than the rights specified in such convention;

(5) if the other party to the bilateral agreement is not a party to the Universal Copyright Convention, provide rights for United States nationals with respect to copyrights in such country not less than the rights specified in such convention;

(6) in the case of an agreement entered into or renewed after January 3, 1975, provide arrangements for the protection of industrial rights and processes;

(7) provide arrangements for the settlement of commercial differences and disputes;

(8) in the case of an agreement entered into or renewed after January 3, 1975, provide arrangements for the promotion of trade, which may include arrangements for the establishment or expansion of trade and tourist promotion offices, for facilitation of activities of governmental commercial officers, participation in trade fairs and exhibits, and the sending of trade missions, and for facilitation of entry, establishment, and travel of commercial representatives;

(9) provide for consultations for the purpose of reviewing the operation of the agreement and relevant aspects of relations between the United States and the other party; and

(10) provide such other arrangements of a commercial nature as will promote the purposes of this chapter.

(c) Congressional action

An agreement referred to in subsection (a) of this section, and a proclamation referred to in section 2434(a) of this title implementing such agreement, shall take effect only if a joint resolution described in section 2191(b)(3) of this title that approves of the agreement referred to in subsection (a) of this section is enacted into law.

 

§2436. Market disruption

(a) Investigation by International Trade Commission; report; publication

(1) Upon the filing of a petition by an entity described in section 2252(a) of this title, upon request of the President or the United States Trade Representative, upon resolution of either the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives or the Committee on Finance of the Senate, or on its own motion, the International Trade Commission (hereafter in this section referred to as the “Commission”) shall promptly make an investigation to determine, with respect to imports of an article which is the product of a Communist country, whether market disruption exists with respect to an article produced by a domestic industry.

(2) The provisions of subsections (a)(3), (b)(4), and (c)(4) of section 2252 of this title shall apply with respect to investigations by the Commission under paragraph (1).

(3) The Commission shall report to the President its determination with respect to each investigation under paragraph (1) and the basis therefor and shall include in each report any dissenting or separate views. If the Commission finds, as a result of its investigation, that market disruption exists with respect to an article produced by a domestic industry, it shall find the amount of the increase in, or imposition of, any duty or other import restriction on such article which is necessary to prevent or remedy such market disruption and shall include such finding in its report to the President. The Commission shall furnish to the President a transcript of the hearings and any briefs which may have been submitted in connection with each investigation.

(4) The report of the Commission of its determination with respect to an investigation under paragraph (1) shall be made at the earliest practicable time, but not later than 3 months after the date on which the petition is filed (or the date on which the request or resolution is received or the motion is adopted, as the case may be). Upon making such report to the President, the Commission shall also promptly make public such report (with the exception of information which the Commission determines to be confidential) and shall cause a summary thereof to be published in the Federal Register.

(b) Affirmative determination

With respect to any affirmative determination of the Commission under subsection (a) of this section—

(1) such determination shall be treated as an affirmative determination made under section 2251(b) of this title (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988); and

(2) sections 2252 and 2253 of this title (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of such Act of 1988), rather than the provisions of part 1 of subchapter II of this chapter as amended by section 1401 of such Act of 1988, shall apply with respect to the taking of subsequent action, if any, by the President in response to such affirmative determination;

except that—

(A) the President may take action under such sections 2252 and 2253 of this title only with respect to imports from the country or countries involved of the article with respect to which the affirmative determination was made; and

(B) if such action consists of, or includes, an orderly marketing agreement, such agreement shall be entered into within 60 days after the import relief determination date.

(c) Products of Communist countries

If, at any time, the President finds that there are reasonable grounds to believe, with respect to imports of an article which is the product of a Communist country, that market disruption exists with respect to an article produced by a domestic industry, he shall request the Commission to initiate an investigation under subsection (a) of this section. If the President further finds that emergency action is necessary, he may take action under sections 2252 and 2253 of this title referred to in subsection (b) of this section as if an affirmative determination of the Commission had been made under subsection (a) of this section. Any action taken by the President under the preceding sentence shall cease to apply (1) if a negative determination is made by the Commission under subsection (a) of this section with respect to imports of such article, on the day on which the Commission's report of such determination is submitted to the President, or (2) if an affirmative determination is made by the Commission under subsection (a) of this section with respect to imports of such article, on the day on which the action taken by the President pursuant to such determination becomes effective.

(d) Petitions to initiate consultations as provided for by safeguard arrangements

(1) A petition may be filed with the President by an entity described in section 2251(a)(1) of this title requesting the President to initiate consultations provided for by the safeguard arrangements of any agreement entered into under section 2435 of this title with respect to imports of an article which is the product of the country which is the other party to such agreement.

(2) If the President determines that there are reasonable grounds to believe, with respect to imports of such article, that market disruption exists with respect to an article produced by a domestic industry, he shall initiate consultations with such country with respect to such imports.

(e) Definitions; factors determining existence of market disruption

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term “Communist country” means any country dominated or controlled by communism.

(2)(A) Market disruption exists within a domestic industry whenever imports of an article, like or directly competitive with an article produced by such domestic industry, are increasing rapidly, either absolutely or relatively, so as to be a significant cause of material injury, or threat thereof, to such domestic industry.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A):

(i) Imports of an article shall be considered to be increasing rapidly if there has been a significant increase in such imports (either actual or relative to domestic production) during a recent period of time.

(ii) The term “significant cause” refers to a cause which contributes significantly to the material injury of the domestic industry, but need not be equal to or greater than any other cause.

(C) The Commission, in determining whether market disruption exists, shall consider, among other factors—

(i) the volume of imports of the merchandise which is the subject of the investigation;

(ii) the effect of imports of the merchandise on prices in the United States for like or directly competitive articles;

(iii) the impact of imports of such merchandise on domestic producers of like or directly competitive articles; and

(iv) evidence of disruptive pricing practices, or other efforts to unfairly manage trade patterns.

 

§2437. Procedure for Congressional approval or disapproval of extension of nondiscriminatory treatment and Presidential reports

(a) Transmission of nondiscriminatory treatment documents to Congress

Whenever the President issues a proclamation under section 2434 of this title extending nondiscriminatory treatment to the products of any foreign country, he shall promptly transmit to the House of Representatives and to the Senate a document setting forth the proclamation and the agreement the proclamation proposes to implement, together with his reasons therefor.

(b) Transmission of freedom of emigration documents to Congress

The President shall transmit to the House of Representatives and the Senate a document containing the initial report submitted by him under section 2432(b) or 2439(b) of this title with respect to a nonmarket economy country. On or before December 31 of each year, the President shall transmit to the House of Representatives and the Senate, a document containing the report required by section 2432(b) or 2439(b) of this title as the case may be, to be submitted on or before such December 31.

(c) Effective date of proclamations and agreements; disapproval of reports

(1) In the case of a document referred to in subsection (a) of this section, the proclamation set forth in the document may become effective and the agreement set forth in the document may enter into force and effect only if a joint resolution described in section 2191(b)(3) of this title that approves of the extension of nondiscriminatory treatment to the products of the country concerned is enacted into law.

(2) In the case of a document referred to in subsection (b) of this section which contains a report submitted by the President under section 2432(b) or 2439(b) of this title with respect to a nonmarket economy country, if, before the close of the 90-day period beginning on the day on which such document is delivered to the House of Representatives and to the Senate, a joint resolution described in section 2192(a)(1)(B) of this title is enacted into law that disapproves of the report submitted by the President with respect to such country, then, beginning with the day after the end of the 60-day period beginning with the date of the enactment of such resolution of disapproval, (A) nondiscriminatory treatment shall not be in force with respect to the products of such country, and the products of such country shall be dutiable at the rates set forth in rate column numbered 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, (B) such country may not participate in any program of the Government of the United States which extends credit or credit guarantees or investment guarantees, and (C) no commercial agreement may thereafter be concluded with such country under this subchapter. If the President vetoes the joint resolution, the joint resolution shall be treated as enacted into law before the end of the 90-day period under this paragraph if both Houses of Congress vote to override such veto on or before the later of the last day of such 90-day period or the last day of the 15-day period (excluding any day described in section 2194(b) of this title) beginning on the date the Congress receives the veto message from the President.

 

§2438. Payment by Czechoslovakia of amounts owed United States citizens and nationals

(a) Renegotiation of 1974 agreement

The arrangement initialed on July 5, 1974, with respect to the settlement of the claims of citizens and nationals of the United States against the Government of Czechoslovakia shall be renegotiated and shall be submitted to the Congress as part of any agreement entered into under this subchapter with Czechoslovakia.

(b) Provisional retention of gold

The United States shall not release any gold belonging to Czechoslovakia and controlled directly or indirectly by the United States pursuant to the provisions of the Paris Reparations Agreement of January 24, 1946, or otherwise, until such agreement has been approved by the Congress.

 

§2439. Freedom to emigrate to join a very close relative in United States

(a) Sanctions for emigration restrictions

To assure the continued dedication of the United States to the fundamental human rights and welfare of its own citizens, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, on or after January 3, 1975, no nonmarket economy country shall participate in any program of the Government of the United States which extends credits or credit guarantees or investment guarantees, directly or indirectly, and the President of the United States shall not conclude any commercial agreement with any such country, during the period beginning with the date on which the President determines that such country—

(1) denies its citizens the right or opportunity to join permanently through emigration, a very close relative in the United State,1 such as a spouse, parent, child, brother, or sister;

(2) imposes more than a nominal tax on the visas or other documents required for emigration described in paragraph (1); or

(3) imposes more than a nominal tax, levy, fine, fee, or other charge on any citizen as a consequence of the desire of such citizen to emigrate as described in paragraph (1),

and ending on the date on which the President determines that such country is no longer in violation of paragraph (1), (2), or (3).

(b) Report to Congress concerning emigration policies

After January 3, 1975, (A) a nonmarket economy country may participate in any program of the Government of the United States which extends credits or credit guarantees or investment guarantees, and (B) the President may conclude a commercial agreement with such country, only after the President has submitted to the Congress a report indicating that such country is not in violation of paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) of this section. Such report with respect to such country shall include information as to the nature and implementation of its laws and policies and restrictions or discrimination applied to or against persons wishing to emigrate to the United States to join close relatives. The report required by this subsection shall be submitted initially as provided herein and, with current information, on or before each June 30 and December 31 thereafter, so long as such credits or guarantees are extended or such agreement is in effect.

(c) Exemption from application of section

This section shall not apply to any country the products of which are eligible for the rates set forth in rate column numbered 1 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States on January 3, 1975.

(d) Additional exemption from application of section

During any period that a waiver is in effect with respect to any nonmarket economy country under section 2432(c) of this title, the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply with respect to such country.

 

§2440. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–295, §17, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3524

 

§2441. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–362, title XIV, §1401(b)(2), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3294; Pub. L. 106–36, title I, §1001(a)(4), June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 130