The U.S. Congress enacts the first explicitly protectionist
David Ricardo publishes his Principles of Political Economy.
The German zollverein (customs union) begins with the negotiation of an agreement between Prussia and Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen.
Britain begins to use its naval power to suppress the slave trade.
The U.S. Congress enacts a protectionist tariff.
Completion of the Erie Canal between Lake Erie and the Hudson River.
Opening of the first successful railway system (the Stockton-Darmington Railway).
James Mill publishes his Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind.
The British Corn Laws are partially relaxed.
The U.S. Congress enacts the “Tariff of Abominations.”
Slavery abolished in Mexico.
The U.S. Congress enacts a modest reduction in the tariff.
The abolition of slavery in British colonies.
The U.S. Congress enacts the “Compromise Tariff,” which gradually reduces rates.
Cyrus McCormick patents the reaper.
Start of the reign of Queen
John Deere introduces the steel plow.
Three inventors simultaneously develop the telegraph.
Slavery abolished in all British colonies.
Louis Daguerre develops the first photographic process..
The Opium War breaks out between
Friedrich List publishes his National System of Political Economy.
The Treaty of Nanking between
The U.S. Congress enacts the “Black Tariff,” which restores rates to the 1832 levels.
The zollverein includes practically the whole of
The Treaty of
Wanghsia between the
Outbreak of the U.S.-Mexican War, which will last until 1848.
The British Parliament repeals the Corn Laws.
The U.S. Congress enacts the relatively liberal “Walker Tariff.”
Revolutionary movements in many European countries.
Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies.
John Stuart Mill publishes his Principles of Political Economy.
Isaac Singer invents the first practical domestic sewing machine.
Outbreak of the Crimean War, which will last until 1856.
The Treaty of Kanagawa with the
The U.S. Congress enacts reductions in the tariff.
The first oil well is drilled in Titusville, Pennsylvania.
Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.
The Cobden-Chevalier Treaty between Great Britain and France marks the start of British leadership in the negotiation of liberal, bilateral trade agreements linked through universal most-favored-nation clauses.
Emancipation of the serfs in Russia.
Outbreak of the U.S. Civil War, which will last until 1865.
The U.S. Congress enacts the protectionist Morrill Tariff Act, the first in a series of tariffs that will become known as the “War Tariff” and remain in place (with adjustments) for a generation.
introduced as a means of preserving milk and other beverages.
Pasteurization introduced as a means of preserving milk and other beverages.
Slavery abolished in all Dutch colonies.
The Union's victory in the Civil War ends slavery in the United States.
Thaddeus Lowe invents the compression ice machine, thus making possible the long-distance transportation of goods that were previously not possible to ship.
The first transatlantic cable is laid.
Karl Marx publishes the first volume of Das Kapital.
The Meiji Restoration begins in
The Franco-Prussian War breaks out, and will last until 1871.
Gradual emancipation of slavery initiated in Brazil.
Trade Unions Act legalizes unions in Great Britain.
The U.S. Congress makes a 10 percent reduction in the War Tariff.
Removal of sugar tariffs in Great Britain.
The HMS Devastation is the first modern, oceangoing warship that is powered by steam.
Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.
Tomas Edison patents the light bulb.
The U.S. Congress enacts the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Adoption of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
The U.S. Congress enacts the “Mongrel Tariff.”
Gottlieb Daimler patents the first gasoline engine.
Slavery abolished in Cuba.
Adoption of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.
Slavery abolished in Brazil.
Williams Burroughs invents the first successful recording adding machine.
The Pan-American Union is established
The U.S. Congress enacts the protectionist McKinley Tariff Act.
Creation of the United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property (BIRPI).
The Sino-Japanese War breaks out, and will last until 1895.
The U.S. Congress enacts the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act, with modest reductions in rates.
The first public showing of a motion picture.
Guglielmo Marconi invents the wireless telegraph.
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works completed in Paris.
The U.S. Congress enacts the protectionist Dingley Tariff Act.
The Spanish-American War.
the Hawaiian Islands by the
The First Hague Peace Conference.
Start of the tariff reform (i.e., protectionist) movement in Great Britain.
The Wright brothers make the first flight in a heavier-than-air craft.
The Russo-Japanese War breaks out, and will last until 1905.
Failed revolution in Russia.
The U.S. Congress enacts the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act.
Germany develops diesel-powered submarines.
The U.S. Congress enacts the liberal Underwood Tariff Act.